|Scientific Name:||Corvus corone|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Symes, A., Ashpole, J|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Andorra; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Egypt; Estonia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan; Viet Nam
Vagrant:Algeria; Gibraltar; Greenland; Hong Kong; Iceland; Libya; Malta; Morocco; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Tunisia
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 8,790,000-16,600,000 pairs, which equates to 17,600,000-33,300,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.30% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 58,700,000-111,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.|
Trend Justification: In Europe the overall trend from 1980-2013 showed a moderate increase (EBCC 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species uses a wide variety of open country, preferably with at least scattered trees (Madge 2009). It is only really absent from dense forests and is found in most other habitats (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997). It prefers mixed farmland, parks and gardens, also forest clearings, and equally at home on moorland and on inshore islands, coastal cliffs and estuarine flats. It breeds from late March in western Europe, April in south-east Russia and central Asia and late May or early June in the far north of the range (Madge 2009). It forms a long-term monogamous pair-bond. Both sexes build the nest which is a rather large structure based on sticks and twigs, often mixed with rabbit (Oryctolagus) bones or wire and heather (Ericaceae) twigs. Mud pushed into base gives a solid foundation and a deep cup is thickly lined with soft materials such as wool, animal fur, soft grasses, feathers and paper. Usually it is built in the crown of a tall tree but in more open habitats electricity pylons are used, whilst on exposed coasts a cliff ledge or stunted shrub may be used and some nests are built on old buildings, in reedbeds, or even on the ground. Clutch size is typically four eggs. The species is omnivorous, but it is mainly a carnivorous scavenger. The diet varies according to local habitats, but usually includes invertebrates, especially earthworms (Lumbricidae), small mammals, frogs, bird eggs and nestlings, as well as carrion. In addition, small amounts of grain and weed seeds are taken. The species is resident, although some populations do migrate (Madge 2009).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||6.8|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Historically this species has been persecuted by gamekeepers and farmers because of its habit of raiding nests; however gamekeeper activity has reduced since the 1920s allowing it to recover (Madge 2009).|
Conservation Actions Underway
EU Birds Directive Annex II. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species within Europe.
Conservation Actions Proposed
No conservation measures are currently required for this species within Europe.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Corvus corone. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22706016A87395087.Downloaded on 24 April 2017.|
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