Vireo atricapillus atricapillus Stotz et al. (1996)
Vireo atricapillus atricapillus Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Vireo atricapillus atricapillus BirdLife International (2000)
Vireo atricapillus atricapillus Collar and Andrew (1988)
Vireo atricapillus atricapillus Collar et al. (1994)
||Gender agreement of species name follows David and Gosselin (2002a).
||12 cm. Well-marked and distinctive vireo. Male has black head, white lores and eye-ring (giving spectacled appearance), olive upperparts, blackish wings fringed olive and two yellowish wing-bars. Whitish underparts with olive flanks. Red iris. Female duller and with grey head. Juvenile browner. Similar spp. Cassin's Vireo V. cassinii differs from female in larger size and bill, and lacks red iris. Voice Song a series of rapid 2-3 note phrases. Call a dry chit-it.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Grzybowski, J., Howell, S., Lockwood, M., Lyons, J., Wauer, R., Campomizzi, A.J. & González-Medina, E.
||Bird, J., Harding, M., Isherwood, I., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Wege, D., Derhé, M.
This species qualifies as Vulnerable owing to rapid population declines throughout most of its contracting range. The population is already small and fragmented, but the disappearance of isolated populations and remaining breeding habitat indicate that these rapid declines will continue.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU) –
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU) –
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU) –
- 1996 – Endangered (EN) –
- 1994 – Endangered (EN) –
- 1988 – Threatened (T) –
|Range Description:||Vireo atricapilla once bred from Kansas through Oklahoma to south-west Texas, USA, into central Coahuila and southern Nuevo Leon, Mexico, wintering along the Pacific coast of western Mexico from southern Sonora (Río Yaqui, Alvaro Obregón Dam) to Oaxaca (Salina Cruz on the Pacific coast and Matias Romero, and inland) (Grzybowski 1995, Howell and Webb 1995, S. N. G. Howell in litt. 1998, Rivera et al. 2011). The species's distribution in Texas was assessed on private and public land in 57 counties across the state and found 13% of 10,700 point survey locations were occupied (McFarland et al. 2012). The species was found to be more common in the western part of the state (McFarland et al. 2012). In Oklahoma it is now restricted to a few sites in the Witchita Mountains where breeding habitat is fragmented (Grzybowski 1995). The total wintering area has been calculated to be 141,000 km2 (Rivera et al. 2011).|
Mexico; United States
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||141000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||11-100||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||2000|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 8,000 individuals, equating to 5,300 mature individuals, having declined to c.6,000-10,000 by 2003. However, numbers for south-west Texas and Mexico are uncertain (J. Lyons in litt. 1999). The decline is not uniform: numbers are stable in the southern 25-30% of the historic breeding range, and management has arrested declines elsewhere (J. A. Grzybowski in litt. 1999).|
Trend Justification: A rapid and on-going population decline is estimated to be occurring, based on survey results (J. Lyons in litt. 1999).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||5300||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||2-100||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||1-89|