|Scientific Name:||Vireo bellii|
|Species Authority:||Audubon, 1844|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Butcher, G., Rosenberg, K. & Wells, J.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Harding, M., Sharpe, C J|
This species has undergone moderately rapid declines and hence is considered to be Near Threatened.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||Vireo bellii summers in central and south-western USA and northern Mexico. Its winter range extends from south Baja California along the west coast of Central America, through Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Honduras (Brown 1993). The species has shown a decline of 2.7% per year since 1966 (J. Wells and K. Rosenberg in litt. 2003).|
Native:El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; United States
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||291000|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||2000|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Rich et al. (2004).
Trend Justification: This species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (-66.1% decline over 40 years, equating to a -23.7% decline per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It frequents dense, low, shrubby vegetation in its breeding range where it has been extensively studied (Brown 1993). However, very little is known about its density, ecology or habitat use in the winter grounds.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||4.1|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Habitat loss and modifications through agricultural spread, logging and housing developments have caused declines and continue to threaten the species. Secondarily, rates of brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater), have caused reductions in breeding populations in south-west USA (Brown 1993).|
Conservation Actions Underway
Trapping cowbirds can significantly reduce brood parasitism (Collins et al. 1991), and is a standard management tool in one California study area (Beezley and Rieger 1987). Conservation Actions Proposed
Protect key habitats for the species and manage others in a beneficial way. Continue to monitor trends and ascertain whether it is still declining. Identify the key threats and develop appropriate actions to tackle them.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2012. Vireo bellii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22705156A38237079. . Downloaded on 25 November 2015.|
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