||(Philippi & Landbeck, 1866)
||Masafuera Rayadito, Más Afuera Rayadito, Mas Afuera Rayadito
Aphrastura masafuerae (Philippi & Landbeck, 1866) [Orth. error]
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||16 cm. Small, distinctive furnariid. Generally dull greyish-buff. Dusky brown crown and auriculars. Dull buff throat and eyebrow. Blackish wings with two cinnamon-buff bars across remiges. Black tail with pale rufous central feathers and broad tip to outer rectrices. Slender bill. Voice Often delivers churring trrrt call.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Brooke, M., Hahn, I., Hodum, P., Torres-Mura, J., Wainstein, M. & Wallace, G.
||Bird, J., Capper, D., Harding, M., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Khwaja, N. & Ashpole, J
This species has an extremely small range confined to mixed tree-fern forest on one small island, where recent surveys have shown it to have an extremely small population which may be declining. It is therefore listed as Critically Endangered.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2015 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2012 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2010 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2009 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2008 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2005 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Habitat and Ecology:||This gleaning insectivore is found primarily in Dicksonia externa fern forest, and has a strong association with canelo Drimys confertifolia, an endemic species of tree. It also regularly occurs in Lophosauria quadripinnata dominated slopes in the upper elevations of the island (P. Hodum in litt. 2012). It is most common along stream courses where luxuriant Dicksonia grows to a height of 5 m. There are records at elevations as low as 600 m, but it occurs primarily at 800-1,300 m in the austral summer (Hahn and Römer 1996). The species has a minimum territory size of 4 ha per pair in optimal habitat, although most are larger due to poorer habitat quality, and it nests in natural and man-made cavities, particularly in small natural holes in steep rocks (Hahn et al. 2004, P. Hodum in litt. 2007, 2008, Hahn et al. 2010, 2011). Nesting occurs from late November to early February (Hahn et al. 2011) and fledglings have been noted in January and February (P. Hodum in litt. 2006, 2012). Only four natural nests have ever been found (Hahn et al. 2010), but three complete and four incomplete nests were constructed in nest boxes (Tomasevic et al. 2010). All known nest sites have shown a strong association with canelo (Hahn et al. 2010, Tomasevic et al. 2010). The nests found in nest boxes had a supporting structure of canelo and tree-fern Dicksonia externa rootlets and a soft cup of petrel (Pterodroma externa and P. longirostris) feathers (Tomasevic et al. 2010). Adults fed nestlings with arthropod prey, particularly lepidopteran larvae (Hahn et al. 2010). It is typically skulking and found in pairs, or family groups during the summer months (P. Hodum in litt. 2012).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||3.8|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
It is probably secure as long as mature tracts of the ferns Dicksonia and Lophosauria remain intact, but a large proportion of natural vegetation on the island has been degraded and fragmented by goat-trampling, fire and timber-cutting (I. Hahn in litt. 2004, Hahn et al. 2004, Anon. 2007). Mature trees are important for foraging, roosting and probably provision of nesting cavities (P. Hodum in litt. 2007, 2008, 2012). Introduced mammalian predators are thought to have a significant impact on the population, with rats (Rattus spp.) and possibly mice (Mus musculus) impacting on brood survival, and feral cats impacting on juvenile and adult survival (Hahn and Römer 2002, Tomasevic et al. 2010). Significantly, it is absent from the lowlands, where the forest understorey has already been destroyed. An unusual increase of native Red-backed Hawk Geranoaetus polyosoma during the last decade, as illegal hunting of this species by fishermen has ceased and the hawk population has benefited from preying upon introduced mammals (Hahn et al. 2004), may have contributed modestly to any recent declines, with several cases noted of hawks preying on rayaditos (I. Hahn in litt. 2004, Hahn et al. 2004). Having a montane distribution that is close to the maximum altitude within its range, this species is also potentially susceptible to climate change (BirdLife International unpubl. data).