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Pitta megarhyncha 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Pittidae

Scientific Name: Pitta megarhyncha Schlegel, 1863
Common Name(s):
English Mangrove Pitta
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Sen, S., Zöckler, C., Singal, R. & Jayadevan, P.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Khwaja, N., Taylor, J., Ashpole, J
Justification:
This scarce species is restricted to a highly specialised and restricted habitat, and is therefore likely to have a moderately small global population. It is also suspected to be in moderately rapid decline as a result of habitat loss and degradation. It is therefore listed as Near Threatened, and rates of population decline and habitat loss should be carefully monitored.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in Bangladesh (probably a very local resident in the Sundarbans, common at Khulna); its presence in the Sundarbans of India has also recently been confirmed with photographic evidence (S. K. Sen in litt. 2009) and it is also present in Bhitarkanika National Park in Odisha (P. Jayadevan in litt. 2016, R. Singal in litt. 2016); it also occurs in Myanmar (scarce to locally common), peninsular Thailand (uncommon to locally common in west), Peninsular Malaysia, where it is now considered uncommon, East Malaysia (one record), Singapore, where it is rare, and Indonesia, where it ranges south from the Riau archipelago, through the eastern lowlands of Sumatra to Bangka (Choy and Wee 2010). It is restricted to coastal mangroves, suggesting that its population is likely to be moderately small. The population of the southern Myeik archipelago mangroves in southern Myanmar was recently estimated to be approximately 5,000 territories in 180,000 ha of mangroves (Zöckler 2016). This is the only area with a high density of the species in Myanmar. Similar mangrove areas further north along the coast only host numbers in double figures (C. Zöckler in litt. 2016).

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Bangladesh; India (West Bengal); Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Thailand
Present - origin uncertain:
Singapore
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:1680000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population size of this species has not been quantified, but it is described as generally scarce to locally common.

Trend Justification:  Data on precise rates of decline are lacking, but continuing patterns of loss and degradation of mangrove habitats suggest that a moderately rapid decline is likely to be occurring throughout the species's range.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:UnknownContinuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species occurs in coastal mangroves, as well as in mangrove and Nipa palm stands along tidal rivers, and freshwater swamp forest. It feeds on crustaceans, molluscs and terrestrial insects in drier mud at the bases of mangroves. Nesting has been recorded between May and June (Choy and Wee 2010).

Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):4.2
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Coastal mangrove forests are suffering severe pressure through clearance for fuelwood, charcoal production and construction materials, as well as for large-scale conversion for agricultural land (Webb et al. 2014) and the development of fish and shrimp ponds. This results in destruction and fragmentation of the mangrove habitats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
The species occurs in a number of protected areas.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct repeated surveys across its range to determine the magnitude of declines. Campaign for the protection of remaining tracts of coastal mangrove woodland throughout its range. In Myanmar a large proportion of the population is apparently found outside protected areas, protection of the southern Myeik Archipelago is a matter of urgency (C. Zöckler in litt. 2016).


Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Pitta megarhyncha. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22698691A93697903. . Downloaded on 24 September 2017.
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