|Scientific Name:||Diomedea epomophora|
|Species Authority:||Lesson, 1825|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Diomedea epomophora (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into D. epomophora and D. sanfordi following Robertson and Nunn (1998) and Brooke (2004).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Taylor, J. & Butchart, S.|
|Contributor(s):||Moore, P., Robertson, C., Stahl, J.-C., Taylor, G. & Walker, K.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Anderson, O., Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Small, C., Sullivan, B., Symes, A.|
Although current population trends are assumed to be stable, this species qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a very small range, breeding on four islands, although largely confined to just one, with a fifth mainland population comprising only hybrid birds. It is therefore highly susceptible to stochastic effects and human impacts.
|Range Description:||Diomedea epomophora breeds on Campbell Island (99% of the total population), on Adams, Enderby and Auckland Islands (Auckland Islands group), and on Taiaroa Head (Otago Peninsula, South Island), New Zealand. The Campbell population was estimated at 7,800 breeding pairs in 2004-2008 (ACAP 2009). In 2001, 69 pairs were present on Enderby (Childerhouse et al. 2003), and c.20 breed on Auckland and Adams Islands combined (Croxall and Gales 1998). No pure-bred D. epomophora are present at Taiaroa Head (Heather and Robertson 1997, Taylor 2000). The species circumnavigates the Southern Ocean after breeding (Croxall and Gales 1998), but is most commonly recorded in New Zealand and South American waters (Marchant and Higgins 1990). Breeding adults forage from the South Island southwards to the Campbell Plateau (Waugh et al. 2002) and north to the Chatham Rise. Non-breeding birds forage on the west and east coast of South America (Moore and Bettany 2005), generally between 30-55°S (ACAP 2009). Whole island censuses on Campbell Island in 1994-1995 and study plot censuses in 1996-1997 indicate that the population is likely to be stable, or possibly increasing (Moore et al. 1997).|
Native:Argentina; Australia; Brazil; Chile; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); French Southern Territories; Heard Island and McDonald Islands; New Zealand; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Uruguay
Vagrant:Antarctica; New Caledonia
Present - origin uncertain:Bouvet Island
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The Campbell population is estimated at 7,855 breeding pairs between 2004-2008 (ACAP 2009). In 2001, 69 pairs were present on Enderby (Childerhouse et al. 2003), and c.20 breed on Auckland and Adams Islands combined (Croxall and Gales 1998). An estimate of c7,900 annual breeding pairs is equivalent to c.27,200 mature individuals, based on the ratio used by Croxall and Gales (1998).
|Habitat and Ecology:||Behaviour Breeding is biennial if a chick is successfully reared. Birds return to colonies in October and eggs are laid from late November to late December. Chicks hatch from early February to early March, and fledge in early October to early December. Age of first return to colonies is at least 5 years and the age of first breeding is thought to be around 6-12 years old (ACAP 2009). Habitat Breeding It nests on tussock grassland slopes, ridges, and plateaus (Marchant and Higgins 1990, Heather and Robertson 1997). Diet It feeds primarily on squid and fish, supplemented by salps, crustacea and carrion (Imber 1999). Foraging range During incubation, breeding birds from Campbell Island foraged mostly within 1,250 km of the colonies over shallow (<1500 m deep) shelf and shelf break waters of the Campbell Plateau north to southern New Zealand and over the Chatham Rise, commuting directly to locally productive sites (ACAP 2009).|
|Major Threat(s):||The population is thought to be recovering after human predation, farming and introduced mammals caused reductions in all populations until the 1930s, extirpating the Enderby and Auckland Islands populations by the late 1800s (Heather and Robertson 1997). Pigs and cats still take eggs and chicks on Auckland Island. On Campbell and Enderby Dracophyllum scrub is spreading, possibly due to climatic warming, and may reduce breeding habitat. A possible decrease in the population during the 1970s - early 1980s coincided with the peak in long-line fishing in the New Zealand region (Moore and Bettany 2005). Southern Royal Albatross are caught by longliners and trawlers in Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans, and off the east and west coasts of South America (Taylor 2000, Moore and Bettany 2005, ACAP 2009). Although reported bycatch numbers of D. epomophora in New Zealand fisheries have been relatively low, with 14 individuals observed killed in surface longlines and trawls between 1998 and 2004, observer coverage in this period was less than 5% of total fishing effort. Similarly, mortalities observed in the Argentine longline fleet along the Patagonian Shelf between 1999 and 2001 comprised on average 1.4% (0-6.1%) of the 901 seabirds caught in total. However, the estimated annual seabird bycatch in this fishery may be in the thousands (ACAP 2009).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II and ACAP Annex 1. Cattle and sheep have been removed from Campbell, and cattle, rabbits and mice have been eradicated from Enderby. Rats were eradicated from Campbell in 2001, and an expedition in 1993 found no evidence of them persisting (P. Moore in litt. 2003). Almost 36,000 birds have been banded on Campbell since the 1940s, but since 2006 bands are being removed, except in two study colonies. Two study areas on Campbell were monitored annually in the 1990s (P. Moore in litt. 2003). All islands are nature reserves and, in 1998, were declared a World Heritage Site. Conservation Actions Proposed
Census the Campbell and Enderby colonies at 10-year intervals. Monitor vegetation change on Campbell and Enderby and assess its effect on habitat availability. Eradicate pigs and cats from Auckland Island (Taylor 2000).
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Diomedea epomophora. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 March 2015.|
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