|Scientific Name:||Puffinus gavia|
|Species Authority:||(Forster, 1844)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Newton, P., Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.|
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||This species is a common and widespread New Zealand endemic. The larger colonies are found in the Three Kings group, Moturoa group, Motuharakeke (Cavalli Islands), north-west Chickens, Bream Islands, Mokohinau group, Channel Island, Mercury group, Ruamahuanui (Aldermen group) and Trio Islands and many other islands in Cook Strait. Fledglings, and possibly some adults, move towards the east and south of Australia in February, but most remain near to breeding colonies throughout the year (Marchant and Higgins 1990, Powlesland and Rickard 1992).|
Native:Australia; New Zealand
Vagrant:Antarctica; Solomon Islands
Present - origin uncertain:New Caledonia; Norfolk Island
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||10200000|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to number at least 100,000 individuals.
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to predation by invasive species.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species breeds on small, vegetated islands and rock stacks. It nests in colonies in burrows under grass, scrub or coastal forest, but occasionally breeds in rocky cavities (Marchant and Higgins 1990). The breeding biology of the species is very poorly known, but laying is believed to begin in early September, and chicks fledge from late January (Powlesland and Rickard 1992). Birds feed mostly on fish and some coastal krill (Marchant and Higgins 1990).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||18.3|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||Historically, the species has been extirpated from several breeding locations by introduced feral cats, black rats Rattus rattus and brown rats R. norvegicus. The species presently survives mostly on mammal-free islands, but some support populations of Pacific rat R. exulans. These populations are relatively small, and the rats may be having a significant effect on breeding success. Saddle Island supports a R. rattus population. The species is frequently caught on hand and reel-lines in inshore waters, but the impact of this on populations is unknown. Potential threats also include inshore set netting and over-harvesting of inshore fish species.|
Conservation Actions Underway
Pacific rat Rattus exulans has been eradicated from at least 14 island colonies in the last 15 years, and rabbits, goats and cats have also been removed from islands. A long-term experiment to establish a new breeding colony by the translocation of chicks was commenced in 1991 (Bell 1995). Pairs have since established and breeding has occurred in consecutive breeding seasons since 1996 (Powlesland and Rickard 1992, B. D. and D. Bell in litt. 1999).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2012. Puffinus gavia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22698249A40219574. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22698249A40219574.en . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.|
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