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Puffinus puffinus 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Procellariiformes Procellariidae

Scientific Name: Puffinus puffinus
Species Authority: (Brünnich, 1764)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Manx Shearwater
French Puffin des Anglais
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Ekstrom, J., Newton, P.
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The overall population trend is unknown however it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species breeds in the north Atlantic, with major colonies on the Atlantic coasts of the United Kingdom and Ireland. Colonies are also present on Iceland, islets off Massachusetts (U.S.A.) and Newfoundland (Canada), as well as on the Azores, Portugal and the Canary Islands, Spain. It undergoes transequatorial migration, expanding the range in winter to include the Atlantic coast of South America below the equator and the south-west coast of South Africa.

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Argentina; Bermuda; Brazil; Canada; Chile; Denmark; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Faroe Islands; France; French Guiana; Guadeloupe; Iceland; Ireland; Liberia; Morocco; Namibia; Netherlands; Norway; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Senegal; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Spain (Canary Is.); Trinidad and Tobago; United Kingdom; United States; Uruguay; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Western Sahara
Vagrant:
Angola (Angola); Australia; Austria; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Cape Verde; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Cuba; Dominican Republic; Germany; Ghana; Greenland; Mauritania; New Zealand; Nigeria; Panama; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sweden; Switzerland
Present - origin uncertain:
Gambia; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Sierra Leone
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:120000000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):1000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In Europe (which covers >95% of the breeding range), the breeding population is estimated to be 342,000-393,000 breeding pairs, equating to 684,000-785,000 mature individuals or 1,026,000-1,177,500 individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Brooke (2004) also estimated the global population to be at least 1,000,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  The overall population trend is unknown. The population trend is decreasing in North America (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:680000-790000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This marine species is mainly found on waters over the continental shelf, feeding mainly on small shoaling fish but also on some squid, crustaceans and offal. Prey is caught mainly by pursuit-plunging and pursuit-diving, either alone or in small flocks. Breeding starts in March, forming colonies on coastal or offshore islands, nesting in burrows (del Hoyo et al. 1992).
Systems:Terrestrial; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):16.5
Movement patterns:Full Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The following information refers to the species's European range only: Considerable human exploitation continues in the Azores and in Islands of Madeira (Carboneras et al. 2014) and legal harvesting (1,000–5,000 chicks per annum) also continues on the Faeroe Islands (Thorup et al. 2014). The species suffers predation by rats and feral cats at many of its breeding colonies (control programmes are in effect at some, while additional work is planned) (Zonfrillo 2007). Light pollution causing mortality has been recorded at some sites (e.g., Canary Islands) (Carboneras et al. 2014) and the species may also be displaced from foraging areas by shipping lanes. Habitat destruction and fire induced damage to breeding colonies within the Canary Islands is believed to impact on the species. The species is vulnerable to oil spills (Votier et al. 2005) and to other types of marine water pollution (Camphuysen et al. 2010). The species is vulnerable to being caught as fisheries bycatch, including in longlines and gillnets (Žydelis et al. 2013).  While the increasing number of wind farms may cause collisions or displacement, it is currently considered a very low risk for this species (Bradbury et al. 2014).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention. It is covered by the EU Birds Directive as a migratory species. The following information refers to the species's European range only: It occurs in 20 marine Important Bird Areas including in the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Ireland, the U.K. and Spain. Within the EU it is listed in 53 Special Protection Areas in France, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain. Current work in the United Kingdom and Ireland is tracking their seasonal movements and identifying foraging hotspots for protection.

Conservation Actions Proposed
The following information refers to the species's European range only: Identification and designation of important sites at sea. Management of invasive alien species within breeding colonies and monitoring and enforcement (where appropriate) of human exploitation. Increased observer effort on board fishing vessels to monitor bycatch rates, and implementation where appropriate of bycatch mitigation measures.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Puffinus puffinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22698226A86238815. . Downloaded on 10 December 2016.
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