|Scientific Name:||Ardenna grisea|
|Species Authority:||(Gmelin, 1789)|
Ardenna grisea ssp. grisea — Christidis and Boles (2008)
Puffinus griseus (Gmelin, 1789)
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Ardenna grisea (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Puffinus as P. griseus.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Bird, J., McClellan, R., Moreno, R., Symes, A.|
This species is classified as Near Threatened because although it has a very large global population it is thought to have undergone a moderately rapid decline owing to the impact of fisheries, the harvesting of its young and possibly climate change.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Ardenna grisea is an abundant shearwater, breeding on islands off New Zealand, Australia and Chile, and the Falkland Islands (Malvinas). In Australia there are colonies on 17 islands (all of less than 1,000 pairs), southern Chile (many colonies, some up to 200,000 pairs and up to 4 million birds on Isla Guafo; Reyes-Arriagada et al. 2007) and the Falklands (10,000-20,000 pairs) and more than 180 colonies in New Zealand totalling 4.4 million pairs (19.0–23.6 million birds) (Newman et al. 2009, Waugh et al. 2013). In 1970-71, the Snares Islands colonies were estimated to support 2,750,000 breeding pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1992; Heather and Robertson 1997). Although this is an extremely numerous species, there are persistent signs of a current decline (Brooke 2004). In New Zealand, the number of burrows in the largest colony (on the Snares islands) declined by 37% between 1969-1971 and 1996-2000, and burrow occupancy may also have declined, indicating that an overall population decline may have occurred (Warham and Wilson 1982; Scofield and Christie 2002, Scott et al. 2008). Elsewhere some mainland New Zealand colonies have declined and certain offshore island colonies (especially in northern New Zealand) have not responded to predator control (Gaze 2000; Jones 2000, Waugh et al. 2013). However other colonies in southern New Zealand have responded to sustained pest management with increasing numbers (Newman et al. 2009). The species migrates to the northern hemisphere during the austral winter (Shaffer et al. 2006, Hedd et al. 2012). In the California Current, Sooty Shearwater numbers have fallen by 90% in the last 20 years (Veit et al. 1996). It remains uncertain whether this has resulted from population declines or distributional shifts (Spear and Ainley 1999).|
Native:Antarctica; Argentina; Australia; Bermuda; Brazil; Chile; Costa Rica; Denmark; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Fiji; France; Greenland; Guadeloupe; Ireland; Israel; Jordan; Marshall Islands; Mexico; New Zealand; Panama; Portugal; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Spain (Canary Is. - Vagrant); United Kingdom; United States
Vagrant:Algeria; American Samoa (American Samoa); Barbados; Belgium; Cape Verde; China; Cuba; Egypt; Finland; French Polynesia; Gibraltar; Guatemala; Italy; Jamaica; Latvia; Lebanon; Liberia; Malta; Martinique; Mauritania; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Poland; Puerto Rico; Russian Federation; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Lucia; Sao Tomé and Principe; Sri Lanka; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Taiwan, Province of China; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; United Arab Emirates; Virgin Islands, U.S.
Present - origin uncertain:Angola (Angola); Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Bahamas; Benin; Bouvet Island; Cameroon; Canada; Colombia; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Dominica; Ecuador (Galápagos); El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Faroe Islands; French Guiana; French Southern Territories; Gabon; Gambia; Germany; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Heard Island and McDonald Islands; Iceland; Japan; Kiribati; Madagascar; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Nauru; Netherlands; New Caledonia; Norfolk Island; Peru; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Solomon Islands; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Suriname; Togo; Tonga; Turks and Caicos Islands; Tuvalu; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Wallis and Futuna; Western Sahara
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is roughly estimated to number > c.20,000,000 individuals (Brooke, 2004), while national population estimates include: 4.4 million pairs (19.0–23.6 million birds) in New Zealand (Newman et al. 2009) and also very large colonies in Chile (e.g. Guafo Island) (Reyes-Arriagada et al. 2007).|
Trend Justification: There are persistent signs of current decline in the global population (Brooke 2004), and the population trend is decreasing in North America (based on Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count data: Butcher and Niven 2007) and in New Zealand (Scott et al. 2008, Clucas et al. 2008). Though the rate of decline of the whole population has not been quantified, moderately rapid population declines are suspected.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It nests on islands and headlands in large colonies. Burrows are dug for breeding under tussock grass, low scrub and on the Snares Islands under Olearia forest. Birds typically do not return to their natal colonies until age four. It feeds on fish, crustacea and cephalopods, caught while diving. Short (1-3 days) and long (5-15 days) provisioning trips are made by parents; longer trips allow foraging along the Antarctic Polar Front, reducing competition close to breeding grounds and allowing vast colonies to persist (Weimerskirch 1998). .|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||21.2|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||Harvesting young birds or 'muttonbirding' currently accounts for the take of around a quarter of a million birds annually (del Hoyo et al. 1992; Heather and Robertson 1997, Newman et al. 2008, 2009), but is unlikely to account for the scale of the decline. Populations are no longer ravaged by pelagic drift-nets which formerly drowned up to 350,000 birds (both adults and immatures) annually (Ogi et al. 1993). Longline, trawl and gill-net fisheries are responsible for large numbers of deaths of this and many other seabird species both during the breeding season and the winter migration to the northern hemisphere (Uhlmann 2003). Some authorities postulate that the decline may be associated with climate change, as investigation into the biological impact of recent climatic trends suggests either large-scale shifts in the foraging distribution of the species during the Boreal summer, or dramatic reductions in abundance and survival rate (Ainley et al. 1995; Veit et al. 1996, 1997; Spear and Ainley 1999; Wahl and Tweit 2000; Oedekoven et al. 2001; Hyrenbach and Veit 2003; Veit et al. 1996). Rats (Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus) have been shown to predate on eggs and chicks, although the extent of the impact is unknown (Jones et al. 2008).|
Conservation Actions Underway
The species is monitored at some sites and has been extensively studied in parts of its range. Some breeding grounds are protected and have benefited from eradications of introduced predators. Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue monitoring key colonies and migration bottlenecks. Research the key threats driving declines and assess appropriate responses. Buffer important colonies against invasive species invasions.
|Amended reason:||Map revised.|
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2017. Ardenna grisea. (amended version published in 2016) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22698209A110674925.Downloaded on 22 August 2017.|
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