|Scientific Name:||Pterodroma arminjoniana|
|Species Authority:||(Giglioli & Salvadori, 1869)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Identification information:||35-39 cm. Medium-sized, polychromatic petrel (dark, pale and intermediate plumages) with diagnostic white patch on underwing at the bases of primary feathers.. Dark morph is wholly dark brown. Pale morph has very dark grey upperparts, white forehead-sides, and is white below with indistinct or well delimited grey breast-band. Black, deep and narrow bill, with strongly hooked nail, typical of the genus. Juvenile like adult. Similar spp. Dark morph is similar to Kermadec Petrel P. neglecta, but has pointed tail ,more white on underwing, but only separated from the Trindade petrel by absence of pale primary shafts in the upperwing and distinct call. Pale morph has less white on face and more on underwing than P. neglecta.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Bugoni, L. & da Fonseca Neto, F.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Anderson, O., Clay, R., Frere, E., Lascelles, B., Moreno, R., Symes, A., Temple, H.|
This species has a very small breeding range and population on two groups of islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, where it is susceptible to human impacts and stochastic events. An unidentifed Pterodroma species breeding on Round Island in the Indian Ocean is also now believed to be the same species based on recent genetic work (Brown and Jordan 2009).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Pterodroma arminjoniana breeds on Trindade Islands off the coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil. It was considered abundant on Trindade in 1913 and 1986 (Murphy 1936, Filippini 1986). Surveys in the mid-1990s have indicated that the Trindade population numbers 2,000-5,000 individuals (F. P. da Fonseca Neto in litt. 2000), and the global population was estimated at 15,000 individuals (Brooke 2004), although recent estimates suggest the total may be as low as 1,130 breeding pairs (Luigi et al. 2008). Flocks have been noted flying around the Túnel, Pão de Açúcar, Farilhões and Crista de Galo peaks. Aerial courtship displays during daylight hours make the species very easily observed, despite low abundance. Also recently identified, from what was previously an unidentified Pterodroma species, to be breeding on Round Island, 22 km north of Mauritius, in the Indian Ocean (Brown et al. 2010). There have been confirmed sightings of several birds at sea in the central south Atlantic (490 nm northeast of Tristan da Cunha), off the Azores and a single sighting off Cape Verde Islands (Flood 2010). Geolocator trackings confirm they may regularly winter in the central north Atlantic (Ramos et al., MS in review). During breeding forage in a vast area around Trindade Island, from the Equator to 34°S, in deep waters. Apparently there is a staging area east of Trindade used by birds after breeding and before migration to North Atlantic Ocean (L. Bugoni & G.R. Leal, umpub. data).
Vagrant:Argentina; Portugal; Puerto Rico
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Luigi et al. (2008) have revised the previous population estimate of 15,000 individuals globally (Brooke 2004) to just 1,130 breeding pairs. |
Trend Justification: Presumed to be stable, as there are no current major threats.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
It is present at Trindade Island year-round (all months) and breeds in two well-defined periods with some overlap and apparent fidelity of individuals at one period. Nests are located in crevices and other cliff-cavities in the highest parts of Trindade (Antas 1991) as well as down to sea level. The peak times for breeding activities (laying) are October and April (F. P. da Fonseca Neto in litt. 2000).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||15.6|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
Introduced cats and pigs may have formerly restricted the breeding population on Trindade to inaccessible cliff sites and islets (see item 'Ecology' above) (Williams 1984, F. P. da Fonseca Neto in litt. 2000), and it is also a surface nesting species, so low altitude populations might have been eliminated by feral pigs, cats and humans from the 1700s onwards, except those in small islets surrounding the main island. Hundreds of goats (~500) and/or fire have largely removed forested habitats on the island (Murphy 1936, Olson 1981, F. P. da Fonseca Neto in litt. 2000), but the effect on breeding sites is undetermined. All feral mammals now eradicated, but house mouse Mus musculus abundant. The Brazilian Navy is possibly interested in building a small airbase on the island, which could pose threats in its construction and operation (F. P. da Fonseca Neto in litt. 2000). Experimental wind turbines and a tower for wind measurements have already been built on the island, with plans to build further wind turbines in the near future. The Martin Vaz Islands have never been inhabited and are unlikely to harbour introduced mammals (Williams 1984). The only disturbance to these populations has been the former use of the islands for occasional target practice by the navy (Williams 1984). In Round Island share breeding grounds with P. neglecta and P. heraldica, with hybridization occurring (Brown et al. 2010, 2011), which could lead to blurring of specific identity.
Conservation Actions Underway
Since 1967, Brazilian law has afforded protection to all seabirds by forbidding persecution, killing, colony disturbance and the use of bird by-products (Antas 1991). The Brazilian navy eradicated goats from Trindade by 2005, thus supporting restoring forested natural habitats (da Silva 1995, F. P. da Fonseca Neto in litt. 2000). Pigs and cats were eradicated from the island by 1970 (Williams 1984, F. P. da Fonseca Neto in litt. 2000).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Designate the majority of Trindade as a federal reserve (Antas 1991) or national park (F. P. da Fonseca Neto in litt. 2000). Conduct an impact assessment before any construction on Trindade.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Pterodroma arminjoniana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22698005A93653761.Downloaded on 23 March 2017.|
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