||White-necked Petrel, White-naped Petrel
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
||Pterodroma cervicalis (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993, Brooks 2004) was split into P. cervicalis and P. occulta by Imber and Tennyson (2001) and Christidis and Boles (2008), largely on the basis of the latter's smaller size and relatively longer tail, but this treatment is not followed by the BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group because athough there are a few other minor plumage differences, occulta is not known to differ vocally or in the timing of its breeding season from cervicalis, and it is therefore felt premature to accord occulta specific status.
||43 cm. Large, grey-and-white petrel with distinctive white hindneck. Black cap extends to below eyes. White band extends from throat around hindneck. Grey upperparts, upperwing, with black "M" across wings. May have grey half-collar across upper breast. White underparts. White underwing with narrow, black trailing edge, black tip, wider black leading edge distal to carpal joint, short, bolder black bar extending towards centre of wing from joint. Similar spp. Distinguished from Juan Fernandez Petrel P. externa by stronger cap contrast, bolder black marking at leading edge of underwing distal to carpal joint. P. externa has grey nape, but some individuals become almost as white-necked as P. cervicalis.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Carlile, N., Garnett, S., MacAllan, I., Taylor, G. & Tennyson, A.
||Anderson, O., Benstead, P., Calvert, R., McClellan, R., Taylor, J. & Temple, H.
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a very small range, on two or three very small islands, and it is therefore susceptible to stochastic events and human impacts.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2010 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2006 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
|Range Description:||Pterodroma cervicalis breeds on Macauley Island in the Kermadec Islands, New Zealand (c.50,000 pairs in 1988, possibly increasing), with a second small colony recently established on Phillip Island, off Norfolk Island (to Australia) with nests increasing from six in 1994 to 20 in 2005 (Priddel et al. 2010). It bred on Raoul Island, also in the Kermadec Islands, early in the 20th century (Taylor 2000). The rare subspecies occulta breeds in small numbers on Vanua Lava, Vanuatu (Totterman 2009). It migrates to the tropical and sub-tropical north and southwest Pacific Ocean (Heather and Robertson 1997, J. Hobbs in litt. 2009), with a recent sighting off Gau Island, Fiji (Pym in litt. 2008). In February 2010, the rare sub-species P. occulta was photographed, 60 miles from the site of the original specimens, and only the second documented sighting since 1927; a total of 21 individuals were sighted over a three-day period, nine seen rafting before dusk (P. Harrison in litt. 2010).|
American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; Cook Islands; Fiji; French Polynesia; Guam; Japan; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Niue; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; United States; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Wallis and Futuna
Present - origin uncertain:
French Southern Territories; Kiribati; Marshall Islands; Nauru; Papua New Guinea; Samoa; Solomon Islands; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu
|♦ Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||1||♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||67200000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||3||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||50|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|