Aptenodytes patagonicus


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Aptenodytes patagonicus
Species Authority: Miller, 1778
Common Name(s):
English King Penguin
French Manchot royal

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The King Penguin can be found on the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia (Georgias del Sur) off the coast of South America, including the coast of southern Argentina during winter. Colonies are also present on Marion Island and Price Edward Island (South Africa), the Kerguelen Islands and Crozet Island (French Southern Territories), and Macquarie Island (Australia) in the Southern Ocean (del Hoyo et al. 1992).
Argentina; Chile; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); French Southern Territories; Heard Island and McDonald Islands; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Antarctica; Australia; Brazil; New Zealand; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; South Africa; Uruguay
Present - origin uncertain:
Bouvet Island
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population Trend: Increasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This marine species spends much of its time near breeding areas. It feeds mostly upon fish but will also take cephalopods. It captures prey by means of pursuit-diving, swimming at up to 12 km/h normally no deeper than 50 m. It arrives at colonies to breed between September and November, forming colonies on flattish beaches with no snow or ice which normally have easy access to the sea (del Hoyo et al. 1992)
Systems: Terrestrial; Marine

Citation: BirdLife International 2012. Aptenodytes patagonicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 02 September 2015.
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