||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
||SACC (2005 + updates), Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Stotz et al. (1996)
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Chebez, J., Pearman, M., Williams, R. & Sharpe, C J
||Benstead, P., Capper, D., Clay, R., Mazar Barnett, J., Sharpe, C J & Symes, A.
This species has a moderately small global population which is suspected to be declining significantly owing to persecution by man. It is consequently classified as Near Threatened.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2008 – Near Threatened (NT) –
- 2004 – Near Threatened (NT) –
- 2000 – Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt) –
- 1994 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc) –
- 1988 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc) –
|Range Description:||Vultur gryphus occurs throughout the Andes, in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay south to Argentina and Chile (Houston 1994). It is threatened mostly in the north of its range, and is exceedingly rare in Venezuela and Colombia, where a re-introduction programme using captive-bred individuals is in operation (Hilty and Brown 1986, Houston 1994). A similar project is under way in Argentina (J. C. Chebez in litt. 1999).|
Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Chile; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||2540000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||5000|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is described as uncommon and probably declining. Its population is estimated to number at least 10,000 individuals in total (surely runs into five figures), roughly equivalent to 6,700 mature individuals. Since 2000, declines have continued in Ecuador (c.65 birds in five disjunct populations remain [R. Williams in litt. 2002]), Peru and Bolivia, but it remains numerous and appears to be stable in northern Argentina (M. Pearman in litt. 2003). The largest known population is in north-west Patagonia and comprises an estimated c.300 individuals of which c.200 are adults (Lambertucci 2010). Populations in Venezuela (<30 individuals [Cuesta and Sulbaran 2000], or fewer [Sharpe et al. 2008]) and Colombia may be maintained by reintroduction and feeding, but in Colombia at least the population may still be declining. The status of remaining populations is difficult to determine because its mortality, breeding frequency and success are so poorly known (Houston 1994).|
Trend Justification: A moderately rapid and on-going decline is suspected, owing to levels of persecution by humans.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||6700||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|