Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Pelecaniformes Pelecanidae

Scientific Name: Pelecanus philippensis
Species Authority: Gmelin, 1789
Common Name(s):
English Spot-billed Pelican, Grey Pelican
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 127-140 cm. Small, dull, pelican with spotted bill and pouch. Dusky, tufted hindcrown and hindneck, bluish lores, mostly pinkish upper mandible, and pale flight feathers from below. Similar spp. Dalmatian Pelican P. crispus is larger, brighter white with orange pouch and bushy, curly crest. Juvenile Great White Pelican P. onocrotalus is larger with darker head, neck and upperparts, paler lores and blackish flight feathers.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Chan, S., Chunkino, G., Clements, T., Kaluthota, C., Kotagama, S., Li, Z., Mahood, S., Round, P. & Subramanya, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Allinson, T, Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Davidson, P., Khwaja, N., Mahood, S., Peet, N., Pilgrim, J., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.
This species has declined at a moderately rapid rate owing to a number of threats. For this reason the species is classified as Near Threatened.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Near Threatened (NT)
2007 Near Threatened (NT)
2006 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Pelecanus philippensis was formerly common across much of Asia, but suffered a widespread decline (BirdLife International 2001). However, owing to protection and increased knowledge its estimated population has been revised upwards from a low of 5,500-10,000 birds in 2002 to an estimated 13,000-18,000 individuals in 2006. Known breeding populations are now confined to India, Sri Lanka and Cambodia. The Indian population is thought to exceed 5,000 birds in the south owing to increases resulting from improved protection of the species (S. Subramanya in litt. 2006), plus c.3,000 in Assam (Choudhury 2000). In southern India there are 21 known breeding colonies in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu (Subramanya 2006). One of these at Kokkare Bellur, Karnataka, has doubled in size in recent years (Subramanya 2006). However, another at Uppalapadu has declined from a historical high of 12,000 individuals, with only 1,500 observed in a recent count. The site is threatened by human encroachment (M. Akhtar in litt. 2008). In Sri Lanka, c.5,000 birds were thought to breed, possibly overlapping with the southern Indian populations (S. W. Kotagama in litt. 2001). However, recent evidence from Sri Lanka suggests a breeding population of fewer than 1,000 pairs, with counts from the three known colonies totalling just 400 pairs (C. Kaluthota in litt. 2006). In South-East Asia, an estimated 1,000-1,500 breeding pairs (T. Clements in litt. 2007) occur at Prek Toal on the Tonle Sap lake. This population is thought to be increasing following protection of breeding birds at the site beginning in 2002 (T. Clements in litt. 2007). It probably breeds in small numbers on Sumatra, Indonesia, but probably no longer in Myanmar (G. Chunkino in litt. 2006, Weerakoon and Athukorala 2007). There are recent records of migrants in Nepal, Laos and Vietnam, but it no longer occurs in the Philippines and China. Numbers recorded in Thailand have increased in recent years (P. Round in litt. 2006). This is thought to be as a result of improved protection of the nesting colonies in Cambodia. A juvenile, presumably a vagrant, individual has recently been recorded on Amami-Oshima Island, Japan (Hisahiro et al. 2010).

Countries occurrence:
Cambodia; India; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Myanmar; Nepal; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Viet Nam
Regionally extinct:
Bangladesh; Philippines
Korea, Republic of; Malaysia; Singapore
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 1500000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 11-100
Continuing decline in number of locations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: S. Subramanya (in litt. 2006) has suggested that the population in South India now exceeds 5,000 birds owing to increases resulting from improved protection of the species. This would imply a total population of perhaps 7,000-10,000 individuals in South Asia, and 13,000-18,000 individuals globally, roughly equivalent to 8,700-12,000 mature individuals,

Trend Justification:  The species declined rapidly during the 20th century, but in recent years the population appears to have stabilised, with at least some populations apparently now increasing in response to improved protection (P. Round in litt. 2006, S. Subramanya in litt. 2006). The global population is suspected to have undergone a moderately rapid decline over the last three generations.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 8700-12000 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 1-89

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits a variety of deep and shallow wetlands, both man-made and natural, freshwater and saline, open and forested. It breeds colonially in tall trees or palms and feeds in open water, primarily on fish. Some populations appear to be sedentary.

Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 15.4
Movement patterns: Full Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): A crucial factor in its decline was the loss of the Sittang valley breeding colony in Myanmar through deforestation and loss of feeding-sites. Key threats are a combination of human disturbance at breeding colonies and wetlands, extensive felling of nesting trees, the impact of invasive plants on the species's wetland habitat, hunting and poaching of eggs and chicks. Additional threats include the loss of important feeding-sites through siltation, agricultural intensification, aquaculture development, building of power stations, drainage and conversion of wetlands, declines in wetland productivity as a result of pesticide use, and over-exploitation of fisheries (Chandrasekhar 2009). There is some persecution resulting from competition between the birds and fishers. A potential but as yet unqualified threat is posed by avian influenza (P. Round in litt. 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
In India, several key breeding colonies are in protected areas and some local communities have pelican conservation initiatives. In Cambodia, the breeding colonies at Prek Toal and Moat Khla/Boeng Chhma are core areas of Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve. Conservation actions to reduce chick and egg collection and other forms of disturbance to the breeding colony at Prek Toal have been in place since the late 1990s. Eight out of 15 nesting sites in Tamil Nadu are protected. An awareness programme has been initiated in Sri Lanka as part of a project funded by the Conservation Leadership Programme. This has also set up research stations concerned with improving knowledge of the species (Weerakoon and Athukorala 2007).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Identify and survey colonies in Cambodia and any remaining in Myanmar. Afford strict protection to important nesting colonies and key feeding-sites. Promote strict control of pesticide use in important feeding areas. Continue and strengthen on-going conservation actions at the Prek Toal colony, Tonle Sap lake. Draft and enforce new legislation pertaining to large waterbird colony conservation around Tonle Sap lake. Expand conservation awareness programmes at key sites. Monitor the population for signs of avian influenza.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Pelecanus philippensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22697604A40286189. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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