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Phoenicoparrus andinus 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Phoenicopteriformes Phoenicopteridae

Scientific Name: Phoenicoparrus andinus
Species Authority: Philippi, 1854
Common Name(s):
English Andean Flamingo
Spanish Flamenco Andino, Parina Grande
Synonym(s):
Phoenicopterus andinus andinus Collar et al. (1994)
Phoenicopterus andinus andinus Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 102-110 cm. Large flamingo. Pale pink body with brighter upperparts, deep vinaceous-pink lower neck, breast and wing-coverts. Large, black, triangular patch of primaries visible when perched. Pale yellow and black bill. Yellow legs. Immature greyish with bold streaks in the upperparts. Similar spp. Other flamingos differ in size, leg colour and tertial colour. Voice Nasal, raspy calls in colonies.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2acd+4acd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-07-24
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Chebez, J. & Rocha, O.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Pilgrim, J., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.
Justification:
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it has undergone a rapid population decline over the past three generations, owing to exploitation and declines in habitat quality. Exploitation has now decreased and recent survey data suggest that the population is now stable; however, it remains much depleted compared with past numbers.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2012 Vulnerable (VU)
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2006 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Phoenicoparrus andinus occurs on the high Andean plateaus of Peru, Chile, Bolivia and Argentina, with a resident population of c.100 at Laguna Mar Chiquita, Córdoba, lowland Argentina (Michelutti 1994, Cobos et al. 1999). It breeds at c.10 localities, notably Laguna Colorada and other salt-lakes in south-western Bolivia, Laguna de Salinas (Peru) and Salar de Atacama (Chile) (Rocha 1994, Flamingo Action Plan Questionnaire 1998, O. Rocha in litt. 2000). Breeding has been recorded in Argentina (Laguna Brava), but may only occur during strong El Niño years (Bucher et al. 2000). Population assessments are difficult and vary greatly (Hurlbert 1978, 1981, Scott and Carbonell 1986, Flamingo Action Plan Questionnaire 1998), but 50,000-100,000 individuals (Rocha and Quiroga 1997) may have been realistic until the mid-1980s. The 34,000 estimated in 1997 (Rocha and Quiroga 1997), suggests that it declined rapidly during the preceding 10-15 years (Flamingo Action Plan Questionnaire 1998). Breeding success appears to be consistently low (Flamingo Action Plan Questionnaire 1998), and thus declines may continue for many years, because flamingos have a high longevity (20-50 years) (del Hoyo 1992); however, data from International Simultaneous Census and Simultaneous Census of Network Sites, including over 38,000 individuals recorded in 2010 (Marconi et al. 2011), suggest that the population may have been stable during 1997-2010.

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Chile; Peru
Vagrant:
Brazil
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 190000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 10
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 2300
Upper elevation limit (metres): 4500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population estimate is derived from Rocha & Quiroga (1997), Flamingo Specialist Group & Grupo para la Conservaciande Flamencos Altoandinos in litt. (2005) to Wetlands International (2006); the total may be slightly higher as 38,675 individuals were counted in the 2010 International Simultaneous Census (Marconi et al. 2011).

Trend Justification:  From the mid-1980s to mid-1990s, the population declined from around 50,000-100,000 individuals to 34,000 (Rocha and Quiroga 1997), indicating a rapid decline. Exploitation has now decreased and results from census data suggest that the population remained stable at least between 1997 and 2010 (Marconi et al. 2011).
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: No
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 10 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 1-89

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is largely restricted to high mountain alkaline and salt-lakes, at 2,300-4,500 m. It may be nomadic in search of temporally patchy food supplies (mainly diatoms [del Hoyo 1992]). It breeds colonially, laying only one egg (unless first egg predated), mainly in December-February (del Hoyo 1992, O. Rocha in litt. 2000).

Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 15.5
Movement patterns: Full Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The collecting of eggs to sell as food was intensive in the mid-20th century and the early 1980s, with thousands taken annually (Johnson 1965, Hurlbert 1981). Mining activities, unfavourable water-levels (owing to weather and manipulation), erosion of nest-sites and human disturbance may also affect productivity (Flamingo Action Plan Questionnaire 1998). Outside protected areas in Bolivia, there is a low level of hunting for food, oils and feathers, especially targeting immatures and juveniles (Rocha and Quiroga 1997, O. Rocha in litt. 2000).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. CMS Appendix I. Breeding occurs in Salinas and Aguada Blanca Nature Reserve, Peru (Ugarte-Nunez and Mosaurieta-Echegaray 2000), Salar de Atacama National Flamingo Reserve (del Hoyo 1992), Chile, Las Chinchillas Provincial Natural Reserve, Argentina, and Eduardo Avaroa National Faunal Reserve, Bolivia, with a protected non-breeding site at Laguna de los Pozuelos Natural Monument, Argentina (Flamingo Action Plan Questionnaire 1998). Conservation actions, locally including habitat management, prevention of egg-collecting and raising public awareness, are being undertaken (Flamingo Action Plan Questionnaire 1998, O. Rocha in litt. 2000).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue surveying high Andean salt-lakes (J. C. Chebez in litt. 1999) to monitor known populations and locate additional ones. Protect more sites and raise the status of existing reserves (Rocha and Quiroga 1997, O. Rocha in litt. 2000). Guard unprotected nest-sites (Rocha and Quiroga 1997).


Citation: BirdLife International. 2014. Phoenicoparrus andinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T22697387A61995768. . Downloaded on 31 May 2016.
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