Phoenicopterus chilensis 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Phoenicopteriformes Phoenicopteridae

Scientific Name: Phoenicopterus chilensis
Species Authority: Molina, 1782
Common Name(s):
English Chilean Flamingo
Spanish Flamenco Chileno
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-07-24
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Arengo, F., Clay, R. & Plenge, M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Capper, D., Pilgrim, J., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A. & Taylor, J.
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it is suspected that it will undergo a moderately rapid population decline over the next three generations owing to egg-harvesting, hunting, disturbance and the degradation of its habitat.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2012 Near Threatened (NT)
2008 Near Threatened (NT)
2006 Near Threatened (NT)
2004 Near Threatened (NT)
2000 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Phoenicopterus chilensis breeds in central Peru (apparently erratically, irregularly and in small numbers) (M. A. Plenge in litt. 1999), Bolivia, Argentina, Chile and perhaps erratically in Paraguay (at least one breeding record, and perhaps increasing in the Chaco, with 5,200 wintering in 2005, R. P. Clay in litt. 2000, Lesterhuis et al. 2008), with a few wintering in Uruguay and south-eastern Brazil, and vagrants in Ecuador and the Falkland Islands (Malvinas). In the mid-1970s, the population was estimated at 500,000 birds, but more recent figures of 100,000 in Argentina, up to 30,000 in Chile, and tens of thousands in Peru and Bolivia, suggested that no more than 200,000 individuals might persist; however, coordinated surveys in 2010 found 283,000 individuals and estimated the total population at 300,000 (Marconi et al. 2011).

Countries occurrence:
Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Chile; Ecuador; Paraguay; Peru; Uruguay
Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 3270000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 4500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population was estimated to number 200,000 individuals by del Hoyo (1992) and Valqui et al. (2000); however, a coordinated census in 2010 found 283,000 individuals, and gave a total population estimate of 300,000 individuals (Marconi et al. 2011).

Trend Justification:  Recent survey data are not indicative of a decline in the population at present (Marconi et al. 2011); but it is suspected that the population will undergo a moderately rapid decline over the next three generations owing to egg-harvesting, hunting, disturbance and degradation of the species's habitats.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It occurs on coastal mudflats, estuaries, lagoons and salt-lakes at elevations up to 4,500 m. Breeding habitat is typified by the presence of suitable salinities and islands with extensive surrounding mudflats - conditions that do not occur each year. At Mar Chiquita, birds bred in only nine of the 26 years to 1999.

Systems: Freshwater; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 15.3
Movement patterns: Full Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It has probably been subject to intensive egg-harvesting since the arrival of humans in South America and, in recent years, egg-collectors have been responsible for the partial or complete failure of colonies in Bolivia (del Hoyo 1992, Flamingo CAP Questionnaire 1998). Mar Chiquita (Argentina), perhaps the most important breeding site, is threatened by abstraction of water for irrigation projects. Mining has wrought extensive habitat alteration, and the species also suffers from hunting and tourism-related disturbance (Flamingo CAP Questionnaire 1998).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. CMS Appendix II.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Extend and continue simultaneous surveys during the breeding season to monitor population. Introduce measures to control intensive egg-harvesting.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2014. Phoenicopterus chilensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T22697365A61532880. . Downloaded on 01 December 2015.
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