Tigriornis leucolopha 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Pelecaniformes Ardeidae

Scientific Name: Tigriornis leucolopha (Jardine, 1846)
Common Name(s):
English White-crested Tiger-heron, White-crested Bittern, White-crested Tiger Heron
French Butor à crête blanche, Onoré à huppe blanche
Spanish Avetigre Africana
Tigriornis leucolophus Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Tigriornis leucolophus BirdLife International (2004)
Tigriornis leucolophus BirdLife International (2000)
Tigriornis leucolophus Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Dodman, T., Dowsett-Lemaire, F., Rainey, H. & Dowsett, R.J.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Harding, M., Pilgrim, J., Malpas, L.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Tigriornis leucolopha is uncommon to rare through the African equatorial rainforests, with breeding records from the Gambia, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Gabon and the Congo. It is perhaps commonest in parts of Gabon, lower Congo and northern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) (Brown et al. 1982, Hancock and Kushlan 1984), and has been described as widespread in Ghana (F. Dowsett-Lemaire and R. Dowsett in litt. 2005). It is difficult to estimate a total population size due to the secretive nature of this species (Hancock and Kushlan 1984), but it is now known from at least 62 sites (H. Rainey in litt. 2003).
Countries occurrence:
Angola; Benin; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Liberia; Nigeria; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Togo
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:6130000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Behaviour This species is largely sedentary although there are indications of some migratory movements or vagrancy (del Hoyo et al. 1992). The timing of breeding varies locally but tends to coincide with the rains(mostly May-July in West Africa, November-January in East Africa) to synchronise chick feeding with the period when water levels are highest (del Hoyo et al. 1992). The species breeds in solitary pairs (as far as is known) (Kushlan and Hancock 2005) and remains solitarily when not breeding (del Hoyo et al. 1992). It is partly nocturnal and mainly forages around dawn and dusk (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Habitat It shows a preference for small shaded streams, marshes or swamps (Brown et al. 1982, Hancock and Kushlan 1984, del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kushlan and Hancock 2005) in dense areas of primary rainforest or swamp-forest (Kushlan and Hancock 2005). It also occurs along the banks of forested rivers (Brown et al. 1982, Hancock and Kushlan 1984, del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kushlan and Hancock 2005) (although it generally avoids larger waterways) (Hancock and Kushlan 1984) and inhabits streams (Kushlan and Hancock 2005) in tangled mangrove swamps (del Hoyo et al. 1992) usually well-away from the coast (Hancock and Kushlan 1984). Diet Its diet consists of small fish, crustaceans (del Hoyo et al. 1992) (e.g. crayfish (Kushlan and Hancock 2005) and freshwater crabs (Hancock and Kushlan 1984)), spiders, insects (del Hoyo et al. 1992) (e.g. winged termites (Hancock and Kushlan 1984)), frogs, snakes and lizards (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Breeding site The nest may be a platform of twigs placed 6 m high in trees (del Hoyo et al. 1992).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):7.4
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat to the species is habitat destruction (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Utilisation The species is hunted and traded at traditional medicine markets in Nigeria (Nikolaus 2001).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Tigriornis leucolopha. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22697277A93606044. . Downloaded on 20 June 2018.
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