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Tigriornis leucolopha

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AVES PELECANIFORMES ARDEIDAE

Scientific Name: Tigriornis leucolopha
Species Authority: (Jardine, 1846)
Common Name(s):
English White-crested Tiger-heron, White-crested Tiger Heron, White-crested Bittern
French Butor à crête blanche, Onoré à huppe blanche
Spanish Avetigre Africana
Synonym(s):
Tigriornis leucolophus Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Tigriornis leucolophus BirdLife International (2004)
Tigriornis leucolophus BirdLife International (2000)
Tigriornis leucolophus Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993)
Taxonomic Notes: Gender agreement of species name follows David and Gosselin (2002b).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Dowsett, R., Dowsett-Lemaire, F., Dodman, T. & Rainey, H.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Pilgrim, J., Harding, M., Malpas, L.
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Tigriornis leucolopha is uncommon to rare through the African equatorial rainforests, with breeding records from the Gambia, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Gabon and the Congo. It is perhaps commonest in parts of Gabon, lower Congo and northern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) (Brown et al. 1982, Hancock and Kushlan 1984), and has been described as widespread in Ghana (F. Dowsett-Lemaire and R. Dowsett in litt. 2005). It is difficult to estimate a total population size due to the secretive nature of this species (Hancock and Kushlan 1984), but it is now known from at least 62 sites (H. Rainey in litt. 2003).
Countries:
Native:
Angola (Angola); Benin; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Liberia; Nigeria; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Togo
Vagrant:
Mauritania
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour This species is largely sedentary although there are indications of some migratory movements or vagrancy (del Hoyo et al. 1992). The timing of breeding varies locally but tends to coincide with the rains(mostly May-July in West Africa, November-January in East Africa) to synchronise chick feeding with the period when water levels are highest (del Hoyo et al. 1992). The species breeds in solitary pairs (as far as is known) (Kushlan and Hancock 2005) and remains solitarily when not breeding (del Hoyo et al. 1992). It is partly nocturnal and mainly forages around dawn and dusk (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Habitat It shows a preference for small shaded streams, marshes or swamps (Brown et al. 1982, Hancock and Kushlan 1984, del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kushlan and Hancock 2005) in dense areas of primary rainforest or swamp-forest (Kushlan and Hancock 2005). It also occurs along the banks of forested rivers (Brown et al. 1982, Hancock and Kushlan 1984, del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kushlan and Hancock 2005) (although it generally avoids larger waterways) (Hancock and Kushlan 1984) and inhabits streams (Kushlan and Hancock 2005) in tangled mangrove swamps (del Hoyo et al. 1992) usually well-away from the coast (Hancock and Kushlan 1984). Diet Its diet consists of small fish, crustaceans (del Hoyo et al. 1992) (e.g. crayfish (Kushlan and Hancock 2005) and freshwater crabs (Hancock and Kushlan 1984)), spiders, insects (del Hoyo et al. 1992) (e.g. winged termites (Hancock and Kushlan 1984)), frogs, snakes and lizards (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Breeding site The nest may be a platform of twigs placed 6 m high in trees (del Hoyo et al. 1992).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat to the species is habitat destruction (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Utilisation The species is hunted and traded at traditional medicine markets in Nigeria (Nikolaus 2001).

Citation: BirdLife International 2012. Tigriornis leucolopha. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 December 2014.
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