Calherodius leuconotus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Pelecaniformes Ardeidae

Scientific Name: Calherodius leuconotus
Species Authority: (Wagler, 1827)
Common Name(s):
English White-backed Night-heron, White-backed Night-Heron, White-backed Night Heron
French Bihoreau à dos blanc
Gorsachius leuconotus (Wagler, 1827)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes: Calherodius leuconotus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Gorsachius.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J. & Malpas, L.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Angola (Angola); Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Liberia; Malawi; Mali; Mozambique; Namibia; Nigeria; Senegal; Sierra Leone; South Africa; South Sudan; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Eritrea; Mauritania; Niger; Rwanda
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 7860000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour The movements of this species are very little known (del Hoyo et al. 1992), although it appears to be sedentary, possibly making partial seasonal migrations related to the onset of the rains (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kushlan and Hancock 2005). It breeds in solitary pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1992), the breeding season varying geographically, but usually coinciding with the rains or the early dry season when floods are at their highest (Brown et al. 1982, del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kushlan and Hancock 2005). The species feeds singly or in pairs and is strictly nocturnal (Brown et al. 1982, del Hoyo et al. 1992), requiring secure day-roosting spots such as high trees or very dense marsh and forest vegetation (Kushlan and Hancock 2005). Habitat The species inhabits densely vegetated forest (Kushlan and Hancock 2005), frequenting tree-fringed streams, mangroves, islands in large rivers and lakes, the wooded margins of marshes (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Hockey et al. 2005) and occasionally reedbeds (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Diet Its diet is little known, but may consist of small fish, amphibians, molluscs, crustaceans, flying ants, flies and other insects (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Breeding site The nest is a stick platform (Hockey et al. 2005), usually well hidden and built low over water in trees or bushes (Hockey et al. 2005), occasionally away from water in trees, bushes, reedbeds, mangroves, or on rocks, rock piles on islands (Hockey et al. 2005, Kushlan and Hancock 2005) or rocky shores in caves (Kushlan and Hancock 2005), but very rarely in exposed positions (Hockey et al. 2005).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 6.7
Movement patterns: Full Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is hunted and traded at traditional medicine markets in Nigeria (Nikolaus 2001).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is threatened in southern Africa by habitat loss and degradation. Overgrazing, increased water offtake, soil erosion and poor river management are leading to siltation, reduced river flows, and increased water turbidity, and riparian vegetation is being cleared for agriculture (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Barnes 2000). Utilisation This species is hunted and traded at traditional medicine markets in Nigeria (Nikolaus 2001).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Calherodius leuconotus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22697226A40260479. . Downloaded on 01 December 2015.
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