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Butorides striata

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AVES CICONIIFORMES ARDEIDAE

Scientific Name: Butorides striata
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Striated Heron, Green-backed Heron
French Héron à dos vert
Synonym(s):
Butorides striatus BirdLife International (2004)
Butorides striatus Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993)
Butorides striatus Christidis and Boles (1994)
Butorides striatus Cramp and Simmons (1977-1994)
Taxonomic Notes: Butorides sundevalli and B. striatus (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) have been lumped into B. striata following AOU (2003). Gender agreement of B. striata follows David and Gosselin (2002b).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J. & Malpas, L.
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Countries:
Native:
Angola (Angola); Argentina; Australia; Bangladesh; Benin; Bhutan; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Botswana; Brazil; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Comoros; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Djibouti; Ecuador; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Fiji; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guam; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Israel; Japan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Liberia; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; New Caledonia; Niger; Nigeria; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Qatar; Réunion; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Sao Tomé and Principe; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; South Sudan; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Swaziland; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Uganda; United Arab Emirates; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Vagrant:
Bahrain; Bermuda; Christmas Island; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Jordan; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Present - origin uncertain:
Antigua and Barbuda; Barbados; Dominica; Guadeloupe; Martinique; Montserrat; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population is estimated to number c.150,000-1,200,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in China; < c.100 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 wintering individuals and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Japan and possibly c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour The majority of this species is sedentary although northern breeding populations are migratory and populations in Africa may perform local movements relating to seasonal rainfall (del Hoyo et al. 1992). The timing of breeding varies geographically but often occurs during the rains in the tropics (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kushlan and Hancock 2005). The species is highly territorial and often forages and nests singly (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kushlan and Hancock 2005), occasionally also nesting in loosely spaced single-species groups of 5-15 pairs, or even in larger breeding aggregations of several hundred (300-500) (del Hoyo et al. 1992) pairs (Kushlan and Hancock 2005). Habitat The species shows a preference for forested water margins (Hancock and Kushlan 1984, Kushlan and Hancock 2005) such as mangrove-lined shores and estuaries, or dense woody vegetation fringing ponds, rivers, lakes and streams (Hancock and Kushlan 1984, del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kushlan and Hancock 2005). Other suitable habitats include river swamps, canals, artificial ponds, salt-flats (Kushlan and Hancock 2005), mudflats, tidal zones, exposed coral reefs (del Hoyo et al. 1992), reedbeds, grassy marshland, pastures, rice-fields and other flooded cultivation (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Diet Its diet varies considerably over its range (del Hoyo et al. 1992) but usually consists predominantly of fish (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kushlan and Hancock 2005) as well as amphibians (del Hoyo et al. 1992) (e.g. frogs) (Kushlan and Hancock 2005), insects (del Hoyo et al. 1992) (e.g. water beetles, grasshoppers and dragonflies) (Kushlan and Hancock 2005), spiders, leeches, crustaceans (e.g. crabs and prawns), molluscs (del Hoyo et al. 1992), earthworms, polychaete worms, birds (Kushlan and Hancock 2005), small reptiles and mice (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Breeding site The nest is a small, shallow structure of twigs (Kushlan and Hancock 2005) placed well hidden amongst the branches of trees or bushes (especially mangroves Rhizophora spp. and Avicennia spp., or Allocasuarina spp., Myoporum spp., Callistemon spp., Hibiscus spp., Casuarina spp., Syzygium spp. and Inga spp.) (Kushlan and Hancock 2005) 0.3-10 m above the surface of water or above the ground (del Hoyo et al. 1992).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is threatened by human disturbance, pesticides (del Hoyo et al. 1992) and habitat destruction (e.g. the loss of mangroves) (Kushlan and Hancock 2005). Utilisation The species is taken for food in some areas (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Citation: BirdLife International 2012. Butorides striata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 July 2014.
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