||Podiceps auritus (Linnaeus, 1758)
||Horned Grebe, Slavonian Grebe
||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
||31-38 cm grebe. Nominate race in breeding plumage has blackish cap, hindneck and upperparts; lores warm brown; broad golden band over and behind eye; blackish lower face; chestnut to maroon-chestnut foreneck and sides of neck, breast-sides and flanks; white abdomen; iris red; bill black (Llimona et al. 2014). Non-breeding adult has greyish-black cap to just below eye; lores diffusely pale; grey or brown-grey sides of neck, sometimes extending across upper foreneck; upperparts dark slate-grey; lower face, chin, throat and sides of upper neck white; bill dark grey. Race cornutus very similar to nominate but tends to have paler tuft on sides of head and in non-breeding plumage is greyer above and grey fringes to dorsal feathers are broader. Similar spp. Differs in non-breeding plumage from similar Black-necked Grebe P. nigricollis in having almost all-white ear-coverts, heavier and straighter bill, flat crown, usually some white on forewing, and white on rear wing not extending to inner primaries (Llimona et al. 2014). Voice Most common call a hoarse rattling "hee-arrr" on descending scale (Llimona et al. 2014). In display it makes a loud pulsating trill of whinnying and fast giggle-like notes ending in a drawn-out note. Generally silent outside breeding season.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Ellermaa, M., Mischenko, A. & Raudonikis, L.
||Ashpole, J, Burfield, I., Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Ekstrom, J., Ieronymidou, C., Malpas, L., Moreno, R., Pople, R., Wheatley, H., Wright, L
This species is thought to be undergoing rapid declines based on counts in its North American and European range, owing to the effects of human disturbance, forestry operations around breeding lakes, fluctuating water levels, and the stocking of lakes with rainbow trout. It has therefore been uplisted to Vulnerable.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2015 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2012 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2009 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2008 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2004 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2000 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
- 1994 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
- 1988 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
|Range Description:||This species is found in the Palearctic and Nearctic. It breeds from Iceland and the Baltic to Kamchatka, Russia, wintering from the North Sea to the Caspian Sea and off Japan to China (Llimona et al. 2014). Birds breeding from central Alaska (U.S.A.) to central Canada and north-west/north-central U.S.A. with isolated populations in Magdalen Islands, Quebec (Canada) winter from the Aleutian Islands south to California and from Nova Scotia south to Texas. No more than 25 adults have been recorded during the breeding season on the Magdalen Islands since 1993 (COSEWIC 2009).|
Albania; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bulgaria; Canada; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Greenland; Hungary; Iceland; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Ireland; Italy; Japan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan, Province of China; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Kingdom; United States; Uzbekistan
Algeria; Armenia; Bermuda; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Cyprus; Gibraltar; Hong Kong; India; Israel; Kuwait; Lebanon; Libya; Luxembourg; Montenegro; Morocco; Pakistan; Portugal; Serbia; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia
Present - origin uncertain:
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||26000000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||1000|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species breeds on small, shallow fresh (del Hoyo et al. 1992), brackish or slightly alkaline (Fjeldså 2004) waters between 0.5 and 2 m deep and between 1 and 20 ha in area (Snow and Perrins 1998) with rich floating (Konter 2001), submergent and emergent vegetation (Fjeldså 2004). Habitats include small pools, marshes with patches of open water and secluded sections of larger lakes and rivers (del Hoyo et al. 1992). The nest is a platform of aquatic vegetation either floating and anchored to emergent vegetation, built from the lake bottom (where water is shallow) or built on rocks at water level (del Hoyo et al. 1992). In its wintering range the species frequents coastal inshore waters (del Hoyo et al. 1992) up to 10-20 m in depth (Fjeldså 2004) including sheltered bays (del Hoyo et al. 1992), lagoons and estuaries (Ogilvie and Rose 2003). It may also occur on large lake and river systems south of its breeding range (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Fjeldså 2004). |
Its diet consists predominantly of fish and invertebrates such as adult and larval insects (e.g. beetles, dragonflies, mayflies, water bugs, damselflies and caddisflies), crustaceans (del Hoyo et al. 1992) (e.g. brine shrimp, cladocerans, amphipods, decapods (del Hoyo et al. 1992), crayfish (Fjeldså 2004) and crabs (Konter 2001)), molluscs and worms (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Fish and crustaceans are more important components of the diet during the winter when the species is at sea (del Hoyo et al. 1992). This species is fully migratory (del Hoyo et al. 1992) and travels over land in stages on a broad front, some populations only moving short distances to the nearest ice-free coast (Fjeldså 2004).
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||7.1|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|