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Podiceps grisegena

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AVES PODICIPEDIFORMES PODICIPEDIDAE

Scientific Name: Podiceps grisegena
Species Authority: (Boddaert, 1783)
Common Name(s):
English Red-necked Grebe

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L., Calvert, R.
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species can be found in western Canada, north-west USA, eastern Russia, north-east China and northern Japan, wintering from Japan and Korea through the Aleutian Islands to California (both USA), and off eastern the USA south to Florida. It can also be found in eastern Europe, west and west-central Asia wintering from the North Sea, Black Sea and Caspian Sea (del Hoyo et al. 1992).
Countries:
Native:
Afghanistan; Albania; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canada; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Ireland; Italy; Japan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Pakistan; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States (Georgia); Uzbekistan
Vagrant:
Algeria; Bahamas; Bermuda; Cyprus; Egypt; Faroe Islands; Greenland; Iceland; Israel; Lebanon; Luxembourg; Portugal; Saudi Arabia; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population is estimated to number c.190,000-290,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs, c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; < c.100 breeding pairs, < c.50 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour This species is fully migratory and breeds from April or May to June or August (del Hoyo et al. 1992) in isolated solitary pairs (Fjeldsa 2004), sometimes also nesting in loose colonies (del Hoyo et al. 1992) of up to c.20 pairs (Snow and Perrins 1998). Post-breeding adults undergo a flightless wing-moulting period (Fjeldsa 2004) after which they migrate south either singly or in small loose flocks (del Hoyo et al. 1992) with concentrations of over 2,000 individuals occurring at favoured staging sites (del Hoyo et al. 1992). During the winter the species typically feeds singly and rarely aggregates into flocks (Fjeldsa 2004). Habitat Breeding The species breeds on small (less than 3 ha), shallow (less than 2 m deep) inland waters with abundant emergent vegetation (del Hoyo et al. 1992) (e.g. reedbeds) (Fjeldsa 2004) and stretches of open water (del Hoyo et al. 1992), showing a preference for waters in forested areas or in shrub tundra further to the north (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Suitable habitats include small pools and lakes, backwaters of large rivers, pools cut off from the sea in estuaries (del Hoyo et al. 1992) and coastal lagoons (Fjeldsa 2004). In coastal locations the species often makes foraging flights to inland lakes or offshore areas (Fjeldsa 2004), and if foraging at sea it shows a preference for sub-tidal locations down to a depth of 15 m with sand or gravel substrates, scattered rocks and patches of seaweed (Fjeldsa 2004). Non-breeding When moulting, on passage or during the winter the species frequents large inland lakes (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Fjeldsa 2004) or shallow coastal areas (Fjeldsa 2004) with abundant fish stocks (del Hoyo et al. 1992), often considerable distances from the shore, amongst islands in archipelagos or over drop-off zones (Fjeldsa 2004). When foraging at sea the species shows a preference for sub-tidal locations down to a depth of 15 m with sand or gravel substrates, scattered rocks and patches of seaweed (Fjeldsa 2004). Diet Its diet consists predominantly of invertebrates (Snow and Perrins 1998) such as adult and larval aquatic insects (e.g. water beetles, water bugs and dragonfly larvae), crayfish and molluscs (Konter 2001), although fish are also be important locally or seasonally (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Breeding site The nest is a floating platform of plant matter anchored to submerged or emergent vegetation (del Hoyo et al. 1992). The species typically breeds in isolated pairs with more than 50 m between neighbouring nests (Fjeldsa 2004), although in some cases (e.g. on predator-free islands of floating vegetation attached to emergent vegetation beds) semi-colonial nesting may occur (Fjeldsa 2004).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In North America the species is threatened by pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other pesticides (del Hoyo et al. 1992) (e.g. DDT) (Ogilvie and Rose 2003) which cause reduced reproductive success due to egg sterility and eggshell thinning (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Ogilvie and Rose 2003). The species is also threatened by the modification and degradation of lakes and by human disturbance from water-based recreational activities (del Hoyo et al. 1992). It may also be threatened by future oil spills at sea during the winter (although during this season the species is widely scattered along coasts, so the effects of oil spills are likely to be small) (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Citation: BirdLife International 2012. Podiceps grisegena. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 September 2014.
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