|Scientific Name:||Poliocephalus rufopectus|
|Species Authority:||Gray, 1843|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.|
|Identification information:||29 cm. Small, dark grebe. Blackish head with fine, silver feathers. Pale yellow eye. Dark, chestnut foreneck and breast. Black-brown upperparts. Paler non-breeding plumage. Similar spp. Hoary-headed Grebe P. poliocephalus is lighter and less red. Australian Little Grebe Tachybaptus novaehollandiae is smaller. Voice Silent except for chattering calls in breeding season.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable C2a(i) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Bell, B., Owen, K., Robertson, H. & Taylor, G.A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Mahood, S., McClellan, R., Pilgrim, J., Taylor, J.|
This species is considered Vulnerable because it has a very small and fragmented population, which is probably declining overall.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||Poliocephalus rufopectus is endemic to New Zealand. The remaining population is restricted to North Island with a wide but fragmented distribution. Occasional vagrants have appeared in the north of South Island since the late 1980s. In 2012, a pair bred near Takaka, representing the first confirmed breeding record on South Island since 1941 (K. Owen in litt. 2012). The national population has been estimated to number 1,900-2,000 birds, including c.200 in Northland, c.700 in the Volcanic Plateau, c.400 in the Hawkes Bay, c.150 in Wairarapa and c.400 in Manawatu (Heather and Robertson 1997, Sachtleben in prep.). Numbers appear to be stable or increasing in some parts of its range (Marchant and Higgins 1990, Sachtleben in prep.), but the population is precautionarily suspected to be in decline overall, owing to continued threats. The reason for the rapid decline and extinction on South Island in the 19th century is not known.|
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||87500|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Number of Locations:||11-100|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||800|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population has been estimated at c.1,900-2,000 birds (Heather and Robertson 1997, Sachtleben in prep.), thus the number of mature individuals is put at 1,200-1,400, based on the assumption that mature individuals account for around 2/3 of the total population.
Trend Justification: The species appears to be stable or increasing in some parts of its range (Marchant and Higgins 1990, Sachtleben in prep.), but the overall population is precautionarily suspected to be in decline owing primarily to habitat loss and modification and the impacts of human disturbance and introduced predators.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It inhabits small bodies of freshwater such as sand-dune lakes and lagoons and larger inland lakes with shallow, sheltered inlets (Marchant and Higgins 1990, Heather and Robertson 1997). It also uses "artificial" habitats such as farm ponds and dams and oxidation ponds. It usually builds its nest on emergent vegetation at the water's edge, floating but attached to vegetation or overhanging branches; as such, it is easily broken up by wave motion or swamped (Marchant and Higgins 1990). It feeds predominantly on aquatic invertebrates, mostly insects and larvae, but sometimes fish and freshwater crayfish (Heather and Robertson 1997). Little is known about the species's life history or population dynamics.
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||5.3|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
Threats include the drying of dune lakes, destruction of nesting habitat, increasing vegetation, increased human activity on waterways, especially boat traffic, and predation by introduced rats Rattus spp. and mustelids Mustela spp., especially when nesting (Marchant and Higgins 1990, G. A. Taylor in litt. 1994). Nests are prone to boat wash caused by recreational boating, which occurs on many occupied lakes during the breeding season (K. Owen in litt. 2012). Low breeding success is achieved on large waters, possibly owing to fluctuating water-levels, wave action and disturbance by other species. Breeding success on dune lakes, farm dams and the sheltered arms of lakes appears to be higher (Marchant and Higgins 1990, K. Owen in litt. 2012), and increases in the number of water storage dams may be driving increases in this species's population in some areas (K. Owen in litt. 2012).
Conservation Actions Underway
Infrequent, region-wide surveys have been undertaken to monitor some key population changes, e.g. the five-yearly census of the Rotorua lakes population (Sachtleben in prep.). Predator control operations since c.2002 have included the use of bait stations to control numbers of brown rats Rattus norvegicus around the shoreline of Lake Tarawera at the Tarawera settlement, which has led to a doubling of the local P. rufopectus population (Sachtleben in prep.).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Regularly monitor population changes throughout its range. Carry out research into the species's life history and population dynamics (K. Owen in litt. 2012). Quantify the effects of introduced predators on breeding success. Consider reintroductions to the South Island (B. D. Bell in litt. 1999).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2012. Poliocephalus rufopectus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22696592A40214247. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22696592A40214247.en . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.|
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