|Scientific Name:||Falco subbuteo|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over 10 years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in 10 years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Angola (Angola); Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; China; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Hong Kong; Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malawi; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Serbia (Serbia); Seychelles; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Spain (Canary Is.); Sudan; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Vagrant:Cameroon; Canada; Chad; Faroe Islands; Ghana; Guinea; Iceland; Indonesia; Lesotho; Malaysia; Senegal; Singapore; Taiwan, Province of China; Timor-Leste; United States (Georgia - Native)
Present - origin uncertain:Guam; Northern Mariana Islands
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number > c.400,000 individuals (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001), while national population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in China; < c.100,000 breeding pairs and < c.1,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Behaviour Most individuals of the species are migratory, with western birds wintering in Africa and others in southern Asia (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Birds leave their breeding grounds between August and October, arriving at wintering quarters from late October onwards. The return journey begins in March and April, and breeding territories are occupied again in May and June. Birds are usually seen singly or in pairs or family groups, even on migration, with larger groups being rare except at roosts and especially rich feeding sites (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). It migrates in broad fronts and does not generally concentrate at narrow sea crossings as do many other migratory raptors (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Snow and Perrins 1998). It is mainly diurnal although partly crepuscular and even nocturnal to some extent on migration (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Habitat It occurs in open wooded areas, and has been recorded up to 4,000 m (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Diet Flying insects form the main part of its diet, although birds are often taken in the breeding season (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Breeding site Birds almost always nest in trees, using abandoned nests of other raptors or corvids (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Management information The species requires trees in which to nest, so although preferring generally open areas in the breeding season it will avoid those that are completely deforested (del Hoyo et al. 1994).|
The cutting of old growth forest patches in Ukraine is thought to have caused local declines (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Some are shot, notably in Malta where hunters are thought to kill 500-1,000 individuals each year. A growing threat is human disturbance, which facilitates nest predation by crows and squirrels. Pesticide use has likely had only minor impacts, as has egg-collecting, which tends to be a local issue (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). The species is highly vulnerable to the effects of potential wind energy development (Strix 2012).
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2013. Falco subbuteo. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 August 2015.|
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