Spizaetus ornatus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Accipitriformes Accipitridae

Scientific Name: Spizaetus ornatus
Species Authority: (Daudin, 1800)
Common Name(s):
English Ornate Hawk-eagle, Ornate Hawk-Eagle
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 58-67 cm. Large, brown-and-white hawk-eagle. Black crown and occipital crest, with chestnut on the sides of the head and hindneck extending to sides of breast. Rest of underparts are white.Tail has three greyish brown bars. Yellow legs.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Taylor, J.
Contributor(s): Lees, A. & Panjabi, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N. & Symes, A.

Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, and habitat loss and persecution elsewhere within its extremely large range, it is suspected that the population of this species will decline by 25-30% over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Near Threatened.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Spizaetus ornatus ranges through most of the Neotropics. Subspecies vicarius occurs from south-east Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama to northern South America. It is rare in west Colombia, and is also known to reach west Ecuador, but there have been very few records there (del Hoyo et al. 1994). The nominate subspecies ornatus occurs from east Colombia east through Venezuela, where it is slightly more frequent but still uncommon (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Hilty 2003, Restall et al. 2006). It is uncommon to rare in Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana and Trinidad and Tobago (Restall et al. 2006). The taxon's range extends south through east Ecuador, north-east Peru and north-east Bolivia. It reaches south Brazil, where it has declined in areas of heavy deforestation, and further south to Paraguay. In north Argentina it is also known to have declined (del Hoyo et al. 1994).
Countries occurrence:
Argentina; Belize; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 9430000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1800
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Ferguson-Lees et al. (2001) estimated the population to number in the tens of thousands. Partners in Flight estimated the population to number fewer than 50,000 individuals (A. Panjabi in litt. 2008).

Trend Justification:  This species is suspected to lose 21.8-40.4% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (56 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Although the species is susceptible to hunting, it survives in fragmented landscapes (A. Lees in litt. 2011); it is therefore suspected to decline by 25-29% over three generations.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species mainly occurs in humid forest, although it is also known to occur near open areas in Venezuela's "llanos" (plains) and in low swamp forest at Petén, Guatemala. In Colombia it mainly occurs up to 1,200 m, but has been recorded as high as 1,800 m, and elsewhere it is known rarely to reach 3,000 m. It mainly hunts large prey, especially birds and mammals. It appears to have an extended breeding season, with laying occurring in the dry season and fledging at the beginning of the rainy season (del Hoyo et al. 1994).
Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 18.5
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

The primary threat to this species is accelerating deforestation in the Amazon basin, through which it is projected to lose up to 40% of its habitat (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). It is also susceptible to hunting and persecution, but is comfortable traversing fragmented landscapes and has a huge range (A. Lees in litt. 2011).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Spizaetus ornatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22696197A40380758. . Downloaded on 01 June 2016.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided