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Aquila fasciata 

Scope: Global
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Accipitriformes Accipitridae

Scientific Name: Aquila fasciata
Species Authority: (Vieillot, 1822)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Bonelli's Eagle
French Aigle de Bonelli
Synonym(s):
Aquila fasciatus
Hieraaetus fasciatus Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Hieraaetus fasciatus AERC TAC (2003)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes: Spizaetus nanus, S. lanceolatus, S. philippensis, S. pinskeri, S. nipalensis, S. alboniger and S. bartelsi (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) and S. cirrhatus and S. floris (Gjershaug et al. 2004) have been transferred into the genus Nisaetus following Haring et al. (2006). S. africanus and Hieraaetus fasciatus (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) have both been transferred into Aquila, also following Haring et al. (2006); and H. kienerii (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been transferred into the resurrected genus Lophotriorchis. The BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group is aware that phylogenetic analyses have been published which have proposed moving H. pennatus into Aquila but as not all published studies are concordant we prefer not to take a decision on this until cladogenesis of the 'booted eagles' has been resolved.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2013-11-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Harding, M., Ekstrom, J.
Justification:
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Cyprus; Djibouti; Egypt; France; Georgia; Gibraltar; Greece; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kuwait; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Lebanon; Libya; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Mauritania; Montenegro; Morocco; Myanmar; Nepal; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Portugal; Saudi Arabia; Serbia (Serbia); Spain (Canary Is. - Vagrant); Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Yemen
Vagrant:
Austria; Bangladesh; Belgium; Czech Republic; Denmark; Germany; Hungary; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Luxembourg; Mongolia; Netherlands; Romania; Slovakia; Sri Lanka; Sweden
Present - origin uncertain:
Azerbaijan
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:5440000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):3000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Behaviour The species has a fragmented distribution across the southern Palearctic and Indomalayan regions, and is marginally Afrotropical (45°N to 10°S). It is locally uncommon to rare and in decline across its range. The species is resident throughout its range, although juveniles will disperse up to 200km with individuals occasionally wandering further afield and passing through key migration routes (Ferguson- Lees and Christie, 2001; Shirihai et al., 2000). Habitat The species occupies mountainous, rocky, arid to semi-moist habitat, from sea level to 1500m, but up to 3000m in Africa and 3750m in the Himalayan foothills. It generally occurs in open areas but also occupies woodland. Juveniles often occupy areas near large water bodies (Ferguson- Lees and Christie, 2001). Diet The eagle’s prey principally comprises small or medium-sized birds, but it will also take mammals, some reptiles, insects and rarely, carrion (Ferguson- Lees and Christie, 2001). Breeding Site The nest is composed of sticks, up to 2m in diameter, located on remote cliff ledges or in a large tree. The nest is re-used in successive years. Breeding occurs from January to July in the west of the range, and from November to September in the Indomalayan region (Ferguson- Lees and Christie, 2001).

Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):18
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Since the 1950’s the species has declined throughout its range. It was affected by pesticide use in the mid-20th Century, and since then populations have not recovered to their pre-organochlorine levels. The species is persecuted by hunters and pigeon-fanciers in the west of its range and juveniles suffer high mortality from collisions with power lines (Rollan, et al., 2010). Declining prey availability, increasing human disturbance and poaching at nest sites, and agricultural intensification are thought to be key factors in the species’ decline (Ferguson- Lees and Christie, 2001; del Hoyo et al., 1994).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2013. Aquila fasciata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T22696076A40846782. . Downloaded on 27 September 2016.
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