|Scientific Name:||Haliaeetus leucocephalus|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1766)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species breeds in Canada, USA, Mexico, and the French island territories of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. It is considered a vagrant in Belize, Bermuda, Ireland, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands.|
Native:Canada; Mexico; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; United States
Vagrant:Belize; Bermuda; Ireland; Puerto Rico; Russian Federation; Virgin Islands, U.S.
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||(Rich et al. 2004)|
Trend Justification: This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (779% increase over 40 years, equating to a 72.2% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Major Threat(s):||Past declines have been attributed to intense hunting, unintentional poisonings (notably use of DDT and lead shot), and habitat destruction in combination with the loss of great herds of bison, a seasonally important food source.|
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2012. Haliaeetus leucocephalus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22695144A40334702.Downloaded on 31 August 2016.|
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