||Haliaeetus leucoryphus (Pallas, 1771)
||Pallas's Fish-eagle, Band-tailed Fish-eagle, Pallas's Fish Eagle, Pallas's Sea-Eagle
||Pigargo de Pallas
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||76-84 cm. Large eagle with pale brownish hood and black-and-white tail. Adult dark brown, with warm buffish to whitish head, neck and upper mantle and blackish tail with broad, white central band. Juvenile more uniformly dark, with all-dark tail, but in flight shows strongly patterned underwing, with whitish band across coverts and prominent, whitish primary flashes. Similar spp. Grey-headed Fish Eagle Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus and White-tailed Eagle H. albicilla both lack combination of dark body, contrasting pale hood and black-and-white tail pattern. Grey-headed is also much smaller. Voice Loud, guttural kha-kha-kha-kha or gao-gao-gao-gao, and sometimes high-pitched, excited yelping. Hoarse guttural continuous kook-kook-kook is commonest call.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Naoroji, R. & Rahmani, A.
||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Peet, N., Taylor, J. & Symes, A.
This species has a small, declining population as a result of the widespread loss, degradation and disturbance of wetlands and breeding sites throughout its range. It therefore qualifies as Vulnerable.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2014 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2007 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Haliaeetus leucoryphus occurs across a huge range from Kazakhstan (may no longer breed, although a positive trend has been noted in the number of records since the late 1990s at least [Kovalenko 2009]), southern Russia (possibly still breeds), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan (probably dispersing non-breeders) and Uzbekistan, east through Mongolia and China, south to northern India, Pakistan, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. It is a passage migrant and winter visitor to Nepal and non-breeding visitor to Afghanistan. The main breeding populations are believed to be in China, Mongolia and the Indian subcontinent. Surveys in Mongolia in June-August 2009 produced observations of a minimum total of 20 birds at eight locations (Gilbert and Gombobataar 2009). It is believed to have declined significantly during the 20th century in China, Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. The population is likely to number fewer than 10,000 mature individuals. |
Afghanistan; Bangladesh; Bhutan; China; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia - Present - Origin Uncertain, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia - Vagrant); Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan
Cambodia; Finland; Iraq; Israel; Netherlands; Norway; Oman; Saudi Arabia; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||6430000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||11-100||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||5000|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number < c.10,000 mature individuals (by BirdLife International 2001) based on detailed analysis of available records, while the population in China has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs (Brazil 2009). It is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals, equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.|
Trend Justification: A moderate and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of loss, degradation and disturbance of wetland habitats and adjacent nesting trees throughout its range.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||2500-9999||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||Yes|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||100|