Cepphus columba 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Charadriiformes Alcidae

Scientific Name: Cepphus columba
Species Authority: Pallas, 1811
Common Name(s):
English Pigeon Guillemot
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The Pigeon Guillemot can be found in the North Pacific, breeding from the Kuril Islands (Russia), on the Kamchatkan Peninsula to the eastern tip of Siberia, Russia, and from the western tip of Alaska (USA) down through the Atlantic coast of Canada to southern California (USA), including colonies on the Commander and Aleutian Islands (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Countries occurrence:
Canada; Japan; Mexico; Russian Federation; United States
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 1700000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 100
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population is estimated to number >  c.470,000 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996), while the population in Russia has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals (Brazil 2009).

Trend Justification:  The overall trend is likely to be stable. This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This marine species can be found along rocky coastlines of the North Pacific. Its diet includes a wide variety of small benthic fish and invertebrates, widening to include more species in the summer. Chicks are usually fed fish which tend to be obtained within 1 km of the colony. It normally arrives at colonies between March and April, breeding on sea cliffs and slopes close to regions of shallow water usually less than 50 m deep. It is a monogamous species with high mate and site fidelity, usually breeding in small colonies of under 50 birds, sometimes as single pairs, but colonies of over 1000 birds have been seen. Individuals normally remain near colonies outside the breeding season, though birds from Alaska and California move south and north respectively (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Systems: Terrestrial; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 8
Movement patterns: Full Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Cepphus columba. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22694864A38891811. . Downloaded on 02 December 2015.
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