|Scientific Name:||Uria lomvia|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Ekstrom, J.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species has a circumpolar distribution in the arctic and high arctic regions of North America, Europe and Asia breeding on coasts and islands. It breeds as far south as the Kuril Islands (Russia), Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada) and Alaska (U.S.A.), and also winters off the coast of central Japan (del Hoyo et al. 1996).|
Native:Canada; Faroe Islands; Greenland; Iceland; Japan; Norway; Russian Federation; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; United States
Vagrant:Austria; Belgium; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany; Ireland; Latvia; Netherlands; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Spain; Sweden; United Kingdom
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number > c.22,000,000 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The European population is estimated at 1,920,000-2,840,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The population in Russia has been estimated at c.10,000-1 million breeding pairs (Brazil 2009).|
Trend Justification: The population trend is increasing in North America (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007). The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is exclusively marine ranging along sea coasts and as far offshore as the continental shelf edge. It feeds chiefly on fish, squid and crustaceans throughout the year, supplemented by polychaetes and molluscs. Fish predominate during summer with the main species varying with locality and are usually caught close to the colony. Birds arrive at colonies in the spring though the start of laying is variable depending on sea temperature, laying latest where the temperatures are lowest (e.g. early July in the high Arctic). It is a highly colonial, usually forming immense aggregations on sea cliffs laying on narrow ledges. The extent and timing of post-breeding dispersal is largely determined by ice conditions and food availability. During the winter periods it can be found in large flocks at sea, likely related to the non-random distribution of winter prey (del Hoyo et al. 1996).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||14|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||Within its European range, the species is known to suffer from incidental kills in fishing nets, competition with commercial fisheries, notably in the Barents Sea, Iceland and oil pollution and offshore oil developments in many areas (e.g. Barents Sea, North Sea) (Nettleship and Christie 2013). It is also likely to be affected by climate change (Gaston et al. 2005).|
Conservation Actions Underway
There are no known current conservation measures for this species within its European range.
Conservation Actions Proposed
The following information refers to the species's European range only: There are a number of immediate conservation requirements for this species. Enhanced monitoring of major colonies is needed, particularly in Iceland, Spitsbergen and the Russian Arctic, where population size and status are inadequately known. Detailed assessment of impacts of overfishing by commercial fisheries is required, particularly of capelin, cod, herring and sand eels in the Barents Sea and Iceland. Continue and expand assessments of by-catch in gill-net fisheries, particularly in the north-east Atlantic. Tighter legislation and penalties (national and international) associated with oil pollution from offshore developments and transport, as well as expansion and refinement of monitoring schemes to assess bird mortality should be developed. The eradication of alien predators, especially foxes at Russian colonies should be undertaken (Nettleship and Christie 2013).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Uria lomvia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22694847A86853272.Downloaded on 25 February 2017.|
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