Anous stolidus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Charadriiformes Laridae

Scientific Name: Anous stolidus
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Brown Noddy, Common Noddy
French Noddi brun
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L., Calvert, R.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The Brown Noddy is a tropical seabird with a worldwide distribution, ranging from the Hawaiian Islands (USA) to the Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia) and Australia in the Pacific Ocean, including colonies off the Pacific coast of north-west South and Central America, from the Red Sea to the Seychelles and Australia in the Indian Ocean including south-east Asia and in the Caribbean to Tristan da Cunha (St Helena to UK) in the Atlantic Ocean including a colony off the coast of Cameroon. Some colonies are also present in the sub-tropics with individuals from these colonies wintering in the tropics (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Countries occurrence:
Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Australia; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba); Brazil; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Cameroon; Cayman Islands; Chile; China; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Colombia; Comoros; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Cuba; Curaçao; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Fiji; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guam; Guatemala; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; India; Indonesia; Jamaica; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Martinique; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Montserrat; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Panama; Philippines; Pitcairn; Puerto Rico; Réunion; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sao Tomé and Principe; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Tokelau; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; Tuvalu; United Arab Emirates; United States; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen
Bermuda; Gambia; Ghana; Liberia; Niue; Sierra Leone; Togo
Present - origin uncertain:
American Samoa (American Samoa); Angola (Angola); Benin; Cambodia; Congo; Côte d'Ivoire; French Southern Territories; Gabon; Mozambique; Papua New Guinea; Peru; Samoa; Singapore
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 26800
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 50
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population is estimated to number c.180,000-1,100,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population sizes have been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Japan (Brazil 2009).

Trend Justification:  Although Wetlands International consider the population trend to be unknown, the population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour Although its migratory movements are poorly known and the species is present all year round at most tropical colonies, it is seasonally absent from subtropical colonies and is known to disperse to the open ocean after breeding (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The timing of breeding varies throughout the species's range (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It may breed colonially in groups numbering up to 100,000 or more pairs (Higgins and Davies 1996) although it also nests almost solitarily depending on the availability of nesting sites (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Even when not breeding the species remains gregarious and can occur in huge flocks in some areas, although it is more usually observed in smaller flocks of 50-100 individuals (Higgins and Davies 1996). Habitat The species occurs around isolated, bare or vegetated, pantropical and subtropical, inshore or oceanic islands or coral reefs with rocky cliffs or offshore stacks (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and coral or sand beaches (Higgins and Davies 1996). It forages in the inshore waters surrounding such islands, often along the line of breakers or in lagoons (Higgins and Davies 1996), and disperses up to 50 km out into the pelagic zone to forage (del Hoyo et al. 1996) (especially when not breeding) (Higgins and Davies 1996). Out at sea it often rests on buoys, flotsam, ships and on the open water (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet Its diet consists predominantly of small fish (Higgins and Davies 1996) as well as squid (del Hoyo et al. 1996), pelagic molluscs, medusae and insects (Higgins and Davies 1996). Breeding site The nest may be a simple layer of debris or a more elaborate construction of seaweed and sticks (del Hoyo et al. 1996), and may be placed in a number of sites including flat shingle beaches, bare ground, cliff ledges, offshore stacks, low bushes and tall trees (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It nests in colonies that can be very dense or more open depending on the availability of nesting sites (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Systems: Terrestrial; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 12.9
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Breeding colonies on islands (e.g. Ascension Island) are threatened by predation from introduced rats and cats (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Predation from the introduced brown tree snake Boiga irregularis is also likely to havecaused the decline in the breeding population on Guam (Reichel 1991). Utilisation Eggs, chicks and adults (to a lesser extent) are taken from breeding colonies in the Mariana Islands (Reichel 1991).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Anous stolidus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22694794A38909326. . Downloaded on 27 November 2015.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided