Sterna repressa 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Charadriiformes Laridae

Scientific Name: Sterna repressa
Species Authority: Hartert, 1916
Common Name(s):
English White-cheeked Tern
French Sterne à joues blanches
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes: The BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group is aware that phylogenetic analyses have been published which have proposed generic rearrangements which may affect this species, but prefers to wait until work by other taxonomists reveals how these changes affect the entire groups involved.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L., Calvert, R.
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The White-cheeked Tern ranges from the Red Sea (seasonal breeding) south to Somalia and Kenya (resident), in the Persian Gulf and Oman (seasonal breeding) and locally in western India (resident). Seasonally breeding birds winter from the Arabian Sea to south-west Indian and the Laccadives (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Countries occurrence:
Bahrain; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kenya; Kuwait; Maldives; Oman; Pakistan; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Somalia; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; United Arab Emirates; Yemen
South Africa; Sri Lanka
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 259000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour Most of this species is migratory (Snow and Perrins 1998) although individuals breeding in East African may remain in their breeding range throughout the year (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It breeds with other tern species in well-dispersed colonies of 10-200 pairs (sometimes up to 900 pairs) (del Hoyo et al. 1996), and remains gregarious throughout the year (Snow and Perrins 1998). Habitat The species inhabits tropical coasts and inshore waters, foraging mainly within 3 km of land over coral reefs or occasionally up to 10 km offshore (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It nests on rock, sand, gravel or coral islands (del Hoyo et al. 1996), bare and exposed sandflats and sparsely vegetated open ground on sand-dunes and above the high-water mark on beaches (Snow and Perrins 1998). Diet Its diet consists of small fish (average 5 cm long) and invertebrates (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow scrape on rock, sand, gravel or coral in barren or sparsely vegetated areas on islands (del Hoyo et al. 1996), sandflats, sand-dunes and beaches (Snow and Perrins 1998).
Systems: Terrestrial; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 11
Movement patterns: Full Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In India the species is contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at levels which may affect embryo development (Kunisue et al. 2003). Utilisation The species is subject to egg collecting from colonies in many areas (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Sterna repressa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22694705A38886116. . Downloaded on 30 May 2016.
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