||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
||The BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group is aware that phylogenetic analyses have been published which have proposed generic rearrangements which may affect this species, but prefers to wait until work by other taxonomists reveals how these changes affect the entire groups involved.
||31 cm. Very dark, small tern. Adult overall very dark grey with black cap and narrow white cheek stripe separating black cap from grey neck. Non breeding adult has grizzled forehead and paler underparts. Immature heavily barred buff on mantle and has all brown cap. Similar spp. Sympatric with Antarctic Tern S. vittata from which it differs by being darker, smaller with shirt wings and tail and with much shorter, weaker and spikey shaped bill. Voice Harsh chittick and long drawn out keeeaaar.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Bretagnolle, V. & Micol, T.
||Anderson, O., Butchart, S., O'Brien, A., Shutes, S., Stattersfield, A., Taylor, J.
This species is listed as Near Threatened owing to its small population. It is not thought to be undergoing a decline at present, but any indication of a decline would result in the species being reclassified as threatened.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2010 – Near Threatened (NT)
- 2008 – Near Threatened (NT)
- 2006 – Near Threatened (NT)
- 2004 – Near Threatened (NT)
- 2000 – Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Sterna virgata breeds in the southern Indian Ocean on the Prince Edward Islands (South Africa) (10-40 pairs on Marion Island during 1996-1999, 12-56 pairs during 1998-2009 without any apparent trend [Whittington et al. 2009], 20 pairs on Prince Edward Island [Barnes 2000] although only a single nest located in 2008 survey [Whittington et al. 2009]), Crozet Islands (French Southern Territories) (150-200 pairs over 1980-1982) and Kerguelen Islands (also French Southern Territories) (1,000-2,000 pairs during 1982-1985). The total population is estimated at 3,500-6,500 individuals (Jouventin et al. 1988, Thibault and Guyst 1993). There are no recent counts from the main breeding area on Kerguelen (V. Bretagnolle in litt. 1999) and thus population trends are unknown, but it is assumed that the species is not undergoing any significant decline. |
French Southern Territories; South Africa
Present - origin uncertain:
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
|♦ Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||7700||♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||7800|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|