|Scientific Name:||Larus atricilla|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
Leucophaeus atricilla atricilla Christidis and Boles (2008)
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/s:||Calvert, R., Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||The Laughing Gull is found in North, Cental and South America. It breeds year-round on the eastern coast of Mexico, and on the western coast of the three continents from North Carolina (USA) down to Venezuala including the Carribean. It also breeds seasonally on the eastern coast of the USA from North Carolina to Maine, wintering from Mexico down to Peru, and down to the mouth of the Amazon (Brazil) (del Hoyo et al. 1996).|
Native:Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Brazil; Canada; Cayman Islands; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; El Salvador; French Guiana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
Vagrant:Australia; Austria; Bulgaria; Chile; Denmark; Fiji; France; Gambia; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Iceland; Ireland; Kiribati; Marshall Islands; Morocco; Namibia; Netherlands; Northern Mariana Islands; Pitcairn; Portugal; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Samoa; Senegal; Spain; Sweden; United Kingdom; United States Minor Outlying Islands
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is strictly coastal when breeding, being found on vegetated sandy beaches, islands, salt-marshes, and on the tops of rocky islands. It lays from mid- to late May in the north, and in late April in Florida. Colonies form from dozens of individuals to 10,000 pairs. Its diet is comprised of aquatic invertebrates and insects, but also fish, scraps and refuse. It can be kleptoparasitic on Brown Pelicans (del Hoyo et al. 1996).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Larus atricilla. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 March 2014.|
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