|Scientific Name:||Larus ridibundus|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1766|
Chroicocephalus ridibundus ssp. ridibundus — Christidis and Boles (2008)
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Burfield, I., Ieronymidou, C., Pople, R., Tarzia, M, Wheatley, H. & Wright, L|
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
In Europe this species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence 10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). The population trend appears to be fluctuating, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (30% decline over ten years or three generations). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern in Europe.
Within the EU27 this species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence 10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (30% decline over ten years or three generations). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern in the EU27.
Native:Albania; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Italy; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
|Population:||The European population is estimated at 1,340,000-1,990,000 pairs, which equates to 2,670,000-3,980,000 mature individuals. The population in the EU27 is estimated at 883,000-1,150,000 pairs, which equates to 1,770,000-2,300,000 mature individuals. For details of national estimates, see the Supplementary Material.|
Trend Justification: In Europe the population size is estimated to be fluctuating. In the EU27 the population size is estimated to be stable. For details of national estimates, see attached PDF.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Some populations of this species in milder areas of Europe are resident, with the remaining populations wintering to the south over a large range, encompassing much of the southern coast of Europe. It breeds chiefly inland, with much breeding habitat created by rising water levels. It inhabits the temperate zone to the edge of boreal forests of the Palearctic; mainly at low altitudes, and generally near calm, shallow water of coastal or inland waters, including rivers and their estuaries. In winter it tends to occur far more in coastal habitats, but also inland at relatively low elevations. It relies heavily on aquatic and terrestrial insects, earthworms and marine invertebrates, and to lesser extent on fish for prey (Burger and Gochfeld 2014).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||9.6|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||The species is susceptible to avian influenza (Melville and Shortridge 2006) and avian botulism so may be threatened by future outbreaks of these diseases (Hubalek et al. 2005). It may also be threatened by future coastal oil spills (Gorski et al. 1977) and has suffered local population declines in the past as a result of egg collecting (Burger and Gochfeld 2014). In some areas of its breeding range the species may also suffer from reduced reproductive successes due to contamination with chemical pollutants (Burger and Gochfeld 2014).|
Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed under the African Eurasian Waterbird Agreement. Within the EU it is listed on Annex II of the Birds Directive. It is listed within 43 marine Important Bird Areas. In the EU it is listed in 928 Special Protection Areas.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Management plans established for protected sites, including monitoring and enforcement from disturbance and removal of eggs.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Larus ridibundus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22694420A60087749.Downloaded on 25 June 2017.|
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