|Scientific Name:||Stercorarius parasiticus (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Ekstrom, J.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species breeds on the northernmost coasts of Eurasia and North America. It is a transequatorial migrant, wintering on the southern tips of South America (as far north as Peru and Argentina), Africa (as far north as South Africa and Angola), and on the coasts of Australia and New Zealand, excluding the northern half of Australia (del Hoyo et al. 1996).|
Native:Algeria; Angola; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Aruba; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahamas; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Bermuda; Brazil; Bulgaria; Canada; Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Cuba; Curaçao; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; Eritrea; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Faroe Islands; Finland; France; French Guiana; Gabon; Gambia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Liberia; Malaysia; Martinique; Mauritania; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Montserrat; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Panama; Peru; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Singapore; Slovakia; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Spain; Sri Lanka; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Turks and Caicos Islands; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Yemen
Vagrant:Antarctica; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Cameroon; Christmas Island; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Croatia; Ethiopia; Fiji; Georgia; Ghana; Grenada; Jamaica; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Luxembourg; Malta; Montenegro; Nigeria; Serbia; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Slovenia; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Timor-Leste
Present - origin uncertain:Congo; Papua New Guinea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The European population is estimated at 39,900-56,200 pairs, which equates to 79,800-112,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 20% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is c.400,000-560,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population sizes have been estimated at c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). The population is therefore placed in the band 400,000-599,999 mature individuals.|
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This marine species is predominately coastal but will migrate over land. Most or all of its food will be obtained by kleptoparasitism when nesting near other seabird colonies, otherwise its diet can include microtine rodents, adult and fledgling passerines, wader chicks, birds eggs, insects and berries. Breeding begins in May or June, occuring later in the north then the south. It is either colonial at seabird sites or widely scattered accross the tundra where it is territorial (del Hoyo et al. 1996).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||13.5|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||Human persecution is a very local problem in Scotland, Faeroes, Iceland and Scandinavia. Increasing numbers of Catharacta skua have displaced some colonies in Scotland. Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is a major predator of eggs and chicks at higher latitudes, and Snowy Owls (Nyctea scandiaca) can also take many chicks (Furness 1996). In some areas the species is also threatened by wind energy production (Furness et al. 2013), fisheries (Furness 2002) and rising temperature extremes (Furness 2007).|
Conservation Actions Underway
The following information refers to the species's European range only: There are currently no known significant conservation measures for this species.
Conservation Actions Proposed
The following information refers to the species's European range only: As the populations in Russia are poorly monitored and population estimates are very approximate (Furness 1996), better monitoring is required.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Stercorarius parasiticus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22694245A86830238.Downloaded on 20 March 2018.|
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