Stercorarius parasiticus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Charadriiformes Stercorariidae

Scientific Name: Stercorarius parasiticus
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Arctic Jaeger, Arctic Skua, Arctic Jaeger
French Labbe parasite
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The Parasitic Jaeger breeds on the northernmost coasts of Eurasia and North America. It is a transequatorial migrant, wintering on the southern tips of South America (as far north as Peru and Argentina), Africa (as far north as South Africa and Angola), and on the coasts of Australia and New Zealand, excluding the northern half of Australia (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Countries occurrence:
Algeria; Angola (Angola); Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Aruba; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahamas; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Bermuda; Brazil; Bulgaria; Canada; Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Cuba; Curaçao; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; Eritrea; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Faroe Islands; Finland; France; French Guiana; Gabon; Gambia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Liberia; Malaysia; Martinique; Mauritania; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Montserrat; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Panama; Peru; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Romania; Russian Federation; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Singapore; Slovakia; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Spain; Sri Lanka; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Turks and Caicos Islands; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States (Georgia - Vagrant); Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Yemen
Antarctica; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Cameroon; Christmas Island; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Croatia; Ethiopia; Fiji; Georgia; Ghana; Grenada; Jamaica; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Luxembourg; Malta; Montenegro; Nigeria; Serbia (Serbia); Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Slovenia; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Timor-Leste
Present - origin uncertain:
Congo; Papua New Guinea
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 6280000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 700
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number c.40,000-140,000 breeding pairs, equating to c.120,000-420,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 5-24% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is c.500,000-10,000,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population sizes have been estimated at c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This marine species is predominately coastal but will migrate over land. Most or all of its food will be obtained by kleptoparasitism when nesting near other seabird colonies, otherwise its diet can include microtine rodents, adult and fledgling passerines, wader chicks, birds eggs, insects and berries. Breeding begins in May or June, occuring later in the north then the south. It is either colonial at seabird sites or widely scattered accross the tundra where it is territorial (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Systems: Terrestrial; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 13.5
Movement patterns: Full Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Stercorarius parasiticus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22694245A38879248. . Downloaded on 27 November 2015.
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