|Scientific Name:||Stercorarius pomarinus|
|Species Authority:||(Temminck, 1815)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Ekstrom, J.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species breeds in the far north of Eurasia and North America. It is a transequatorial migrant, mostly wintering between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn and along the coastlines of Australia and Argentina (del Hoyo et al. 1996).|
Native:Algeria; Angola (Angola); Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Aruba; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahamas; Bahrain; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Brazil; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Canada; Cape Verde; Chile; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Cuba; Curaçao; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Ecuador; Egypt; Eritrea; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; French Guiana; Gambia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greenland; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guyana; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati; Kuwait; Lebanon; Liberia; Malaysia; Maldives; Malta; Marshall Islands; Martinique; Mauritania; Mexico; Montserrat; Morocco; Myanmar; Namibia; Netherlands; New Caledonia; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Northern Mariana Islands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Panama; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Slovakia; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Sweden; Switzerland; Thailand; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkmenistan; Turks and Caicos Islands; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Western Sahara; Yemen
Vagrant:Antarctica; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Congo; Croatia; Fiji; Greece; Guinea-Bissau; Haiti; Hong Kong; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Republic of; Latvia; Luxembourg; Montenegro; New Zealand; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Serbia (Serbia); Slovenia; Somalia; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Turkey
Present - origin uncertain:Anguilla; Benin; Cambodia; Cayman Islands; Christmas Island; Comoros; Dominican Republic; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; French Southern Territories; Grenada; Guinea; Honduras; Jamaica; Madagascar; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Norfolk Island; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Sao Tomé and Principe; Seychelles; Sudan; Taiwan, Province of China; Timor-Leste; Tuvalu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number c.20,000 breeding pairs, equating to c.40,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 10% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is c. 400,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: < c.1,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).|
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is marine outside the breeding season, remaining somewhat coastal, especially in upwelling regions of the tropics and subtropics. Whilst breeding it specialises on catching lemmings which frequently constitute over 90% of their diet, also feeding on young waders and gamebirds, bird eggs, carrion. In winter it takes fish, sometimes by kleptoparasitism, small seabirds, and scavenges on carrion. Breeding begins in June at scattered sites across the tundra where lemming concentrations are high. Individuals are highly territorial. Outside the breeding season it migrates south including long migrations over land (del Hoyo et al. 1996).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||13.5|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||The breeding success of this species is dependent on lemming abundance. Predation of eggs and chicks by Arctic Foxes (Alopex lagopus) and Snowy Owls (Nyctea scandiaca) occurs but is not a serious threat as this species is large enough to drive off nest predators (Furness 1996).|
Conservation Actions Underway
The following information refers to the species's European range only: There are currently no known significant conservation measures for this species.
Conservation Actions Proposed
The following information refers to the species's European range only: No conservation measures are currently thought to be required for this species.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Stercorarius pomarinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22694240A86833544.Downloaded on 23 February 2017.|
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