Pluvianus aegyptius 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Charadriiformes Pluvianidae

Scientific Name: Pluvianus aegyptius
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Egyptian Plover, Crocodile-bird
French Pluvian d'Egypte
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Angola (Angola); Benin; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Liberia; Mali; Mauritania; Niger; Nigeria; Senegal; Sierra Leone; South Sudan; Sudan; Togo; Uganda
Burundi; Egypt; Kenya; Libya
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 5980000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 15000-57000 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour This species is largely sedentary but does undertake local irregular nomadic movements in response to changes in riverine water levels (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996). North of the equator the species breeds from January to April or May when the water levels in rivers are the lowest (the timing of breeding has not been recorded in the southern parts of species's range) (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It breeds in solitary pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and is usually observed in pairs or small groups when not breeding (Hayman et al. 1986), often migrating in flocks of up to 60 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat The species inhabits the middle stretches (Hayman et al. 1986) of large lowland tropical rivers with bars of sand and gravel (which it uses for nesting) (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It often occurs around human settlements near rivers (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and may occasionally use other wetland habitats (Hayman et al. 1986) (e.g. lakes or ponds) (Urban et al. 1986) and be found away from water when not breeding or when rivers are in spate (Hayman et al. 1986). It generally avoids heavily forested areas and estuarine waters however (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet Its diet consists predominantly of insects (Urban et al. 1986) (adult and larval aquatic and terrestrial forms but especially small flies) as well as worms, molluscs (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and seeds (Urban et al. 1986). Breeding site The nest is a deep scrape (del Hoyo et al. 1996) where the eggs are incubated by being buried in warm sand (Hayman et al. 1986) on an exposed sandbank in a riverbed (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 7.3
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is threatened by habitat changes resulting from the damming of rivers (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Pluvianus aegyptius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22694086A38839974. . Downloaded on 25 November 2015.
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