Vanellus senegallus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Charadriiformes Charadriidae

Scientific Name: Vanellus senegallus
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1766)
Common Name(s):
English Wattled Lapwing, African Wattled Lapwing, Senegal Wattled Plover
French Vanneau du Sénégal
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Angola (Angola); Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Liberia; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; South Africa; South Sudan; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Congo; Somalia
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 11300000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2200
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour This species is an intra-African migrant, sedentary in some areas but moving nomadically and opportunistically in others depending on rainfall and flood regimes (although there is no pattern of seasonal movements) (Urban, et al. 1986, del Hoyo, et al. 1996). Breeding occurs in all months of the year depending on locality and the timing of the rains (Urban, et al. 1986, del Hoyo, et al. 1996). This species is more solitary than other lapwings, being found singly, in pairs or small groups even outside of the breeding season (Urban, et al. 1986). Occasionally larger flocks of between 20 and 60 individuals (Zambia) (Johnsgard 1981) form in the non-breeding season in newly available habitats such as burnt grassland or temporary waters (Urban, et al. 1986). The species is diurnally active (Urban, et al. 1986). Habitat This species demonstrates ecological plasticity, in some areas occupying the same habitat all year round, in others changing habitat seasonally and opportunistically (Urban, et al. 1986). It is mainly a lowland species, with the highest altitude of occurrence being 2,200 m in East Africa and Ethiopia (Urban, et al. 1986, del Hoyo, et al. 1996). Habitats frequented by this species include marshes, damp grass and muddy or sandy ground beside lakes, ponds, rivers and streams, inundated grassland, temporary pools (Urban, et al. 1986) and flooded rice fields (Urban, et al. 1986, del Hoyo, et al. 1996), as well as drier habitats such as savanna, dry grassland, airports, cultivated land (Urban, et al. 1986, del Hoyo, et al. 1996) (ploughed land and dry, weedy, fallow fields) (Urban, et al. 1986), wastelands and burnt grassland (del Hoyo, et al. 1996). Diet This species is omnivorous, its diet chiefly consisting of insects such as grasshoppers, locusts, beetles (including dung beetles and weevils) (Urban, et al. 1986, Hockey, et al. 2005), crickets, termites and various aquatic insects, also worms, coarse grass leaves and grass seeds (del Hoyo, et al. 1996, Hockey, et al. 2005). Breeding site The nest of this species is a shallow depression situated in short grass, on bare ground or amongst weeds in fallow fields, frequently near roads or human settlements (del Hoyo, et al. 1996), and always within 100 m of water (Hayman, et al. 1986). In Rwanda 3-4 pairs were recorded nesting close together in a small colony, but in South Africa pairs are highly territorial (Urban, et al. 1986).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 8.9
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by habitat loss in South Africa as a result of commercial afforestation (Allan, et al. 1997). Utilisation The species is hunted and traded at traditional medicine markets in Nigeria (Hockey, et al. 2005).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Vanellus senegallus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22694027A38586406. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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