Phalaropus lobatus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Charadriiformes Scolopacidae

Scientific Name: Phalaropus lobatus
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Red-necked Phalarope
French Phalarope à bec étroit
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The Red-necked Phalarope breeds in the Arctic regions of North America and Eurasia. It is migratory, wintering pelagically off central-western South America, in the Arabian Sea, and from central Indonesia to western Melanesia (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Countries occurrence:
Afghanistan; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Belarus; Belgium; Canada; Chile; China; Colombia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Ecuador; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Germany; Greenland; Hong Kong; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Malaysia; Netherlands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Papua New Guinea; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Qatar; Russian Federation; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saudi Arabia; Singapore; Somalia; Spain; Sudan; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States (Georgia - Vagrant); Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Yemen
Algeria; Argentina; Armenia (Armenia); Australia; Austria; Bahamas; Belize; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burundi; Cayman Islands; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Costa Rica; Croatia; Cuba; Curaçao; Djibouti; Dominican Republic; El Salvador; Ethiopia; Georgia; Gibraltar; Greece; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Hungary; Italy; Jamaica; Kenya; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Lebanon; Libya; Luxembourg; Malta; Mauritania; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Namibia; Nepal; New Zealand; Nigeria; Northern Mariana Islands; Panama; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Romania; Serbia (Serbia); Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Switzerland; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Tunisia; Turks and Caicos Islands; Uganda; Zambia
Present - origin uncertain:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 5110000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population is estimated to number c.3,600,000-4,500,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population sizes have been estimated at c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in China; > c.1,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan; > c.1,000 individuals on migration in Korea; > c.1,000 individuals on migration in Japan and c.100,000-1 million breeding pairs and > c.10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend Justification:  The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour This species is fully migratory and travels over land on both broad and narrow fronts (del Hoyo et al. 1996) using favoured lakes as staging points on route (Hayman et al. 1986). It breeds from late-May to August (Hayman et al. 1986) in solitary pairs, occasionally forming loose colonies where suitable habitat is restricted (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species leaves the breeding grounds between late-June and early-September (Hayman et al. 1986), migrating in gregarious flocks and wintering at sea in flocks of 20-100 (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat Breeding The species breeds in the Arctic on coastal and inland tundra, forest tundra and alpine tundra near lakes, pools (del Hoyo et al. 1996), ponds, lagoons, streams or other permanent water-bodies (Johnsgard 1981) with marshy margins overgrown with grass, sedge or moss (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996) in freshwater marshes and bogs (Hayman et al. 1986). It may also frequent coastal moorland, flood-plains and islets in large rivers, and in Iceland it commonly nests on sparsely vegetated lava deserts (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Non-breeding On passage the species frequents inland saline and hypersaline lakes (del Hoyo et al. 1996) as well as reservoirs, sewage-ponds and coastal marshes (Hayman et al. 1986). During the winter it is largely pelagic however, foraging at sea in upwelling zones and marine areas with a high abundance of plankton (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet Breeding In its breeding range its diet consists of insects (especially adult and larval Diptera, beetles, caddisflies, ants and Hemiptera) and other small invertebrates (e.g. snails, crustaceans and annelid worms) (del Hoyo et al. 1996), larval amphibians (tadpoles) (Johnsgard 1981) and seeds (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Non-breeding On passage the species may take larval brine-flies (Ephydra spp.) from saline lakes, but when feeding pelagically during the winter it feeds on zooplankton (e.g. euphausiids and calanoid copepods) and other floating planktonic particles (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow scrape on bare ground or amongst sparse vegetation (del Hoyo et al. 1996) in sedge thickets or damp, grassy or hummocky areas close to water (Flint et al. 1984). Management information In the UK management regimes to benefit the species include increasing the area of open water in mires by digging small pools, controlling water-levels and providing tussocky vegetation suitable for nesting (through grazing by ponies and cattle) (O'Brien et al. 1997).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 4.9
Movement patterns: Full Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Phalaropus lobatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22693490A38833152. . Downloaded on 29 May 2016.
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