|Scientific Name:||Calidris falcinellus|
|Species Authority:||(Pontoppidan, 1763)|
Limicola falcinellus (Pontoppidan, 1763)
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Calidris falcinellus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Limicola.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Malpas, L.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Armenia (Armenia); Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Cambodia; China; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hong Kong; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Lithuania; Malaysia; Mongolia; Montenegro; Myanmar; Namibia; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Poland; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Saudi Arabia; Serbia (Serbia); Singapore; Slovakia; South Sudan; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Sweden; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Yemen; Zimbabwe
Vagrant:Belgium; Cameroon; Chad; Croatia; Faroe Islands; Iceland; Ireland; Malawi; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Morocco; Mozambique; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nigeria; Palau; Portugal; Rwanda; Seychelles; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Spain; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Uganda; United Kingdom; United States (Georgia - Native); Zambia
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number c.86,000-89,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2006). The European population is estimated at 29,700-44,100 pairs, which equates to 59,400-88,200 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).|
Trend Justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Behaviour This species is a full migrant, and migrates on a broad front (del Hoyo et al. 1996) by making short flights between a series of stop-over sites (Verkuil et al. 2006). Adults breeding in Fennoscandia leave the breeding grounds in July (juveniles departing in August), and stop-over in substantial numbers in Sivash, southern Ukraine, on the Middle Eastern coasts, Caspian Sea and Bulgarian seaboard, before arriving in wintering grounds in Africa, Pakistan and south India between August and early-October (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Eastern breeding populations migrate on a broad front across the taiga, or along the eastern edge of the continent between September and October, and return in April-May (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The Fennoscandian breeding population departs the wintering grounds in the spring between mid-April and early-June (del Hoyo et al. 1996). A few non-breeding birds also remain at the wintering sites during the summer (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding occurs in early- to late-June in Fennoscandia, and between mid-June and early-July in Russia, pairs nesting in loose colonies of 2-10 nests, usually spaced 80-100 m apart (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species migrates singly or in small groups, although during the spring migration flocks of up to several hundred can occur (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat Breeding This species breeds in the wettest parts of bogs (Snow and Perrins 1998) and on open peatland; the Scandinavian and north-west Russian populations breeding in the subarctic montane and lowland zones above 200 m (del Hoyo et al. 1996) (around 1,000 m in Norway) (Snow and Perrins 1998), and the Siberian population breeding in wet Arctic tundra (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Non-breeding On migration this species shows a preference for muddy and boggy areas on the shores of ponds and lakes, but it is also found on shallow freshwater, brackish and saline (sometimes hyper-saline) lagoons, temporary swamps, flooded rice-fields, overgrazed wet meadows, inlets of fjords (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998). The species mainly overwinters on large, soft intertidal mudflats, in brackish lagoons, on saltpans (del Hoyo et al. 1996), sewage farms and saltmarshes (Snow and Perrins 1998). Diet This species is omnivorous, its diet consisting of marine nereid worms, small bivalves and snails, crustaceans (e.g. amphipods), adult and larval insects (e.g. beetles, flies, grasshoppers, ants) (del Hoyo et al. 1996), as well as the seeds of aquatic plants (Snow and Perrins 1998). Breeding site The nest is a cup on top of a wet sedge or moss cushion, well raised above the water level (Johnsgard 1981).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||4.8|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||In China and South Korea important migrational staging areas of this species around the coast of the Yellow Sea are being lost through land reclamation, and degraded as a result of declining river flows (from water abstraction), increased environmental pollution, unsustainable harvesting of benthic fauna and a reduction in the amount of sediment being carried into the area by the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers (Barter 2002, Barter 2006). Local extinctions have occurred in Norway as a result of habitat changes (Van Gils and Wiersma 1996), most likely through drainage and flooding of its breeding habitats. In Finland some of the most suitable peatland areas have been flooded to create artificial lakes. Within its European range however, there do not appear to be any large-scale threats to the species or its breeding habitats (Tucker and Heath 1994).|
Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed on Annex II of the Bern Convention.
Conservation Actions Proposed
The following information refers to the species's European range only: The conservation of wet fens is most important, with no management to keep them as natural as possible. Censusing and monitoring programmes should be implemented to reliably determine the species's distribution, population size and trends. Further research on its habitat requirements on the breeding grounds and wintering quarters should be undertaken in order to help inform conservation actions (Tucker and Heath 1994).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Calidris falcinellus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22693464A86597387.Downloaded on 21 August 2017.|
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