|Scientific Name:||Calidris ferruginea (Pontoppidan 1763)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Calidris paramelanotos (Hayman et al.1986) was treated as a subspecies of C. melanotos following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993) but is now considered a hybrid of C. melanotus and C. ferruginea following Higgins and Davies (1996). Calidris cooperi was described by Baird in 1858 based on a specimen collected on Long Island, New York, USA in May 1833 (Cox 1990b). There is a possible Australian record of a bird captured at Stockton, New South Wales, Australia, in March 1981 (Cox 1990a), but studies of the type suggest that the form is of hybrid origin, Curlew Sandpiper C. ferruginea and Sharp-tailed Sandpiper C. acuminata (Cox 1990b).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable D1 (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Burfield, I., Ieronymidou, C., Pople, R., Van den Bossche, W, Wheatley, H. & Wright, L|
European regional assessment: Vulnerable (VU)
EU27 regional assessment: Vulnerable (VU)
This species does not breed in the region and is assessed on the basis of its small wintering population in Spain and Portugal. The population size within the region meets the threshold for classification as Vulnerable under the small population criterion, with an increasing population trend. Since the population trend of the wintering population in west Africa is decreasing, there is not considered to be significant potential for rescue from outside the region and the final category is unchanged.
The species is therefore classified as Vulnerable (D1) in both Europe and the EU27.
|Range Description:||The species migrates across Europe from it breeding grounds in Siberia to its wintering grounds in sub-Saharan Africa through the Middle East. In the western Palearctic there are three major routes: to White Sea, down western European coasts to west Africa; across eastern Europe via the Black Sea and Tunisia to west Africa, following the north African coast or flying via Mali; and via Black and Caspian Seas and across the Middle East and Rift Valley lakes to eastern and southern Africa (Van Gils and Wiersma 1996).|
Native:Albania; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Ireland; Italy; Latvia; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation (European Russia); Serbia; Slovakia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Vagrant:Gibraltar; Iceland; Luxembourg; Svalbard and Jan Mayen
|Population:||The species only occurs in winter in Europe and the EU27. The minimum European population in winter is estimated at 1,000-1,800 individuals, which equates to 690-1,200 mature individuals. The entire population occurs in the EU27. For details of national estimates, see the Supplementary Material.|
Trend Justification: In Europe and the EU27 the population size is estimated to be increasing. For details of national estimates, see attached PDF.
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is a full migrant, moving long distances by well-travelled routes (Van Gils and Wiersma 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998). On migration, the species crosses Europe in July, reaching Africa from mid-July to September. The return migration to the breeding grounds begins late-April to May, with arrival in the Arctic beginning in early June, and breeding stretching from June to July. Many 1st-year birds remain on the wintering grounds, and non-breeding adults remain just south of the breeding grounds in central Siberia during the summer (Van Gils and Wiersma 1996). The species is gregarious outside of the breeding season, occurring in small parties or larger flocks of up to several hundreds on the coast, but usually in smaller numbers inland (although gatherings of hundreds can occur locally on passage) (Urban et al. 1986). It forages both diurnally and nocturnally (Van Gils and Wiersma 1996). This species breeds on slightly elevated areas in the lowlands of the high Arctic (Johnsgard 1981, Van Gils and Wiersma 1996) especially on southward-facing slopes (Johnsgard 1981), as well as along the coast and islands of the Arctic Ocean (Van Gils and Wiersma 1996). It shows a preference for open tundra with marshy, boggy depressions and pools (Van Gils and Wiersma 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998) from melting permafrost and snow (Snow and Perrins 1998). On the breeding grounds the diet of this species consists mainly of insects, such as the adults, pupae and larvae of Diptera (e.g. midges, craneflies (Johnsgard 1981)) and beetles, as well as bugs and leeches (Van Gils and Wiersma 1996). In the winter its diet consists of polychaete worms, molluscs, crustaceans (such as amphipods, brine shrimps and copepods), and occasionally insects and seeds. The nest is a cup positioned on the margins of marshes or pools, on the slopes of hummock tundra, or on dry patches in Polygonum tundra (Van Gils and Wiersma 1996).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||7.6|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is susceptible to avian influenza (Melville and Shortridge 2006, Gaidet et al. 2007) and avian botulism (Blaker 1967, van Heerden 1974) so may be threatened by future outbreaks of these diseases. In Europe, only a tiny proportion of its global population overwinters in Iberia, making it particularly vulnerable to any threats.|
Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed on Annex II of the Bern Convention.
Conservation Actions Proposed
No conservation measures are thought to be currently needed for this species.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Calidris ferruginea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22693431A60053976.Downloaded on 24 March 2018.|
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