Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Charadriiformes Scolopacidae

Scientific Name: Arenaria interpres
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Ruddy Turnstone, Turnstone
French Tournepierre à collier
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; American Samoa (American Samoa); Angola (Angola); Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Armenia (Armenia); Aruba; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahamas; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bermuda; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Botswana; Brazil; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; Chad; Chile; China; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Colombia; Comoros; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Curaçao; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Faroe Islands; Fiji; Finland; France; French Guiana; French Polynesia; French Southern Territories; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guam; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kiribati; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Marshall Islands; Martinique; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mongolia; Montenegro; Montserrat; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nauru; Nepal; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Niue; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Qatar; Réunion; Romania; Russian Federation; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Sao Tomé and Principe; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Slovakia; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; South Sudan; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tokelau; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Turks and Caicos Islands; Tuvalu; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States (Georgia); United States Minor Outlying Islands; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Western Sahara; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Belarus; Lesotho; Liechtenstein; Luxembourg; Paraguay; Rwanda; Slovenia; Swaziland
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 2620000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population is estimated to number c.460,000-800,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2006), while national population estimates include: c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend Justification:  The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006), and in North America the trend is increasing (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007).
For further information about this species, see 22693336_arenaria_interpres.pdf.
A PDF viewer such as Adobe Reader is required.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour This species is fully migratory (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It breeds from May to early-August (Hayman et al. 1986) in solitary pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1996), although several pairs may nest close together in optimal habitats (Johnsgard 1981) along coasts or on islands (Snow and Perrins 1998). The species migrates in large flocks (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and is gregarious and sociable when feeding or roosting in winter (Snow and Perrins 1998), often foraging in close flocks of 10-100 or more individuals, especially in tidal areas (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Habitat Breeding The species breeds near the coast or up to several kilometres inland (Snow and Perrins 1998) in the high Arctic (Hayman et al. 1986), nesting on coastal plains, marshes and tundra (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and showing a preference for mosaics of bare rock, clay or shingle and vegetation near water (Snow and Perrins 1998) or in areas that remain damp until late summer (Johnsgard 1981). Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season the species is mainly coastal (del Hoyo et al. 1996), although on migration it may occur inland along dykes or on lake shores (del Hoyo et al. 1996). During the winter it frequents productive rocky and shingle shores (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996), breakwaters (del Hoyo et al. 1996), sandy beaches with storm-wracked seaweed (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996), short-grass saltmarshes, sheltered inlets, estuaries, mangroves swamps, exposed reefs and mudflats with beds of molluscs (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet Breeding On its Arctic breeding grounds the species takes Diptera(especially adult and larval midges) as well as larval Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and spiders, occasionally also taking vegetable matter early in the season (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season its diet consists of insects, crustaceans, molluscs (del Hoyo et al. 1996) (especially mussels or cockles) (Johnsgard 1981), annelids, echinoderms, small fish, carrion and birds eggs (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow depression (del Hoyo et al. 1996) in mud, peat or on dry ground (Johnsgard 1981) with dense vegetation (del Hoyo et al. 1996), often positioned on a slight ridge, hummock or tussock, or in cleft or shallow fissure (Snow and Perrins 1998). The species usually nests solitarily, although neighbouring pairs may nest as little as 15 m apart along coasts or on islands (where abundant feeding habitats are available) (Snow and Perrins 1998). Management information Removing feral American mink Neovison vison from a large archipelago with many small islands in the Baltic Sea had the result of increasing the breeding density of this species in the area (Nordstrom et al. 2003).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 7.3
Movement patterns: Full Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species suffers nest predation from feral American mink Neovison vison in some regions (Nordstrom et al. 2003), and is susceptible to avian influenza so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the virus (Melville and Shortridge 2006).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Arenaria interpres. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22693336A38834283. . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.
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