Map_thumbnail_large_font

Tringa glareola

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AVES CHARADRIIFORMES SCOLOPACIDAE

Scientific Name: Tringa glareola
Species Authority: Linnaeus, 1758
Common Name(s):
English Wood Sandpiper
French Chevalier sylvain

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Countries:
Native:
Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola (Angola); Armenia (Armenia); Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Chad; China; Christmas Island; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Guam; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Hong Kong; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lebanon; Lesotho; Liberia; Libya; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Malta; Marshall Islands; Mauritania; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Northern Mariana Islands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Sao Tomé and Principe; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States (Georgia); Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Western Sahara; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Vagrant:
Antigua and Barbuda; Barbados; Bermuda; Comoros; Costa Rica; Dominica; Ecuador; Faroe Islands; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Honduras; Liechtenstein; Martinique; Mauritius; Montserrat; Nicaragua; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Trinidad and Tobago
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population is estimated to number c.3,100,000-3,600,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2006), while national population estimates include: c.100,000-1 million breeding pairs, >c.10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-1 million breeding pairs and >c.1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour This species is a full migrant, travelling overland on a broad front across Europe and the Middle East (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The adults start to move away from the breeding grounds in late-June, with juveniles following in late-August, arriving in tropical Africa from late-July through August to October (Snow and Perrins 1998). On this southern migration many birds frequent stop-over sites to the north of the Mediterranean (especially in France and Italy), after which they overfly the Sahara (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Spring departure from the wintering grounds begins in late-March to early-April (Snow and Perrins 1998), with breeding areas starting to be reoccupied from late-April (early June in northern Russia) (Snow and Perrins 1998), and with breeding occurring between May and mid-July (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Some non-breeding birds may also remain in the south throughout the summer (Snow and Perrins 1998). The species nests in well-dispersed solitary pairs (from 1-10 pairs per km2 to 50 pairs per km2 in forest tundra) (del Hoyo et al. 1996), but in winter it may occur in small scattered groups or larger flocks (20-50 individuals), and concentrations can exceed 1,000 individuals on migration (Urban et al. 1986). Habitat Breeding During the breeding season this species inhabits open, swampy areas in boreal forest (del Hoyo et al. 1996), scrubland between tundra and coniferous forest with willow, dwarf birch or spruce (Snow and Perrins 1998), wet heathlands, and extensive mossy, sedgy or grassy marshes (Snow and Perrins 1998). Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season this species is less associated with woodlands, being more commonly found in open areas such as the margins of inland freshwater lakes and reservoirs (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996), muddy marshlands, grassy stream banks, sewage farms, wet paddyfields, small temporary pools (del Hoyo et al. 1996), permanent swamps, flooded grassland and irrigation channels (Urban et al. 1986). It rarely occurs in coastal habitats, but may be found along the creeks of saltmarshes and mangrove swamps (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet Breeding Whilst on the breeding grounds this species is chiefly carnivorous, taking small insects (up to 2 cm long), especially the aquatic forms such as dytiscid or hydrophilid beetles, Hemiptera and the larvae of Diptera such as midges (Johnsgard 1981). Non-breeding During the non-breeding season the species has a more varied diet consisting of aquatic and terrestrial insects and their larvae, worms, spiders, crustaceans, gastropod molluscs, small fish (up to 2 cm long) and frogs, as well as plant matter such as seeds (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a scrape on the ground amongst dense vegetation (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998) or raised on a tussock or slight ridge, and can sometimes be surrounded by water (Snow and Perrins 1998). The species may also nest in trees in the abandoned nests of other species (del Hoyo et al. 1996) such as thrushes (Snow and Perrins 1998). Management information Intensive grazing of grassland (> 1 cow per hectare) was found to attract a higher abundance of this species in Hungary (Baldi et al. 2005).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is threatened in some European countries (such as Finland) from exploitation, and peatland drainage and destruction for forestry and agriculture (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The populations in southern Sweden, Germany and Poland have also declined, possibly due to the threats of climatic change (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species is susceptible to both avian botulism (Hubalek et al. 2005) and avian malaria (Mendes et al. 2005), so may be threatened by future outbreaks of these diseases.

Citation: BirdLife International 2012. Tringa glareola. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 December 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided