Tringa ochropus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Charadriiformes Scolopacidae

Scientific Name: Tringa ochropus
Species Authority: Linnaeus, 1758
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Green Sandpiper
French Chevalier cul-blanc
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola (Angola); Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Chad; China; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Hong Kong; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malawi; Malaysia; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nepal; Netherlands; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Australia; Botswana; Equatorial Guinea; Faroe Islands; Gibraltar; Iceland; Madagascar; Mauritius; Northern Mariana Islands; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Sao Tomé and Principe; Seychelles; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; United States (Georgia - Native); Western Sahara
Present - origin uncertain:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 14900000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population is estimated to number c.1,200,000-3,600,000 individuals (Wetlands International, 2006), while national population estimated include: c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in China; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend Justification:  The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour This species is fully migratory and moves overland on a broad front (Urban et al. 1986) with European populations making well-documented stop-overs in Saharan oases (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Southward movements to the wintering grounds occur between June and early November, with the species being present in the north and equatorial tropics from late-August to early-April, and in southern Africa from October to March (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996). The return passage to northern breeding grounds occurs between late-February and mid-May (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996), where the species breeds between late April and June (del Hoyo et al. 1996). In mild winters some birds may also remain in the breeding grounds of southern Scandinavia (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species generally occurs in low concentrations during passage and at stop-over sites, although it may occur in small scattered groups of up to 30 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996) in the winter, with aggregations of over 50 being unusual (Snow and Perrins 1998). Habitat Breeding During the breeding season this species inhabits damp areas in swampy, old pine, spruce or alder woodland and montane forest with many fallen and rotten tree stumps, marshy forest floors and heavy carpets of lichens and mosses, generally in the vicinity of rivers, streams, swamps, ponds, lakes (Johnsgard 1981) and bogs (Snow and Perrins 1998). Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season this species shows a preference for a wider variety of inland freshwater habitats such as marshes, lake edges, sewage farms, small dams and ponds, ditches, riverbanks and forest streams, often near villages and cultivation (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996) (although less often in the vicinity of woodland) (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It is also very rarely found in intertidal areas such as creeks and the channels of saltmarches (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet The species is omnivorous, although its diet is predominantly made up of aquatic and terrestrial insects (Snow and Perrins 1998) (e.g. dragonfly larvae, ants, waterbugs, moth larvae, and the adults and larvae of beetles, Diptera and Trichoptera), annelids, small crustaceans, spiders and fish, as well as plant fragments (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site This species frequently nests high in trees in the abandoned nests of passerine species such as Common Woodpigeon Columba palumbus, thrushes Turdus spp. (Hayman et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996), crows, jays and shrikes (Johnsgard 1981), but may also nest in squirrel dreys (Johnsgard 1981, Snow and Perrins 1998), on natural platforms up to 20 m high (del Hoyo et al. 1996), and occasionally on tree stumps or mounds of accumulated pine needles, among branches and tree roots, or amongst fallen trees on the ground (Johnsgard 1981, Snow and Perrins 1998). Management information Unfertilised grasslands with low cattle densities (0.5 cows per hectare) were found to attract a higher abundance of this species in Hungary (Baldi et al. 2005).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 5.6
Movement patterns: Full Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is susceptible to avian influenza (strain H5N1) so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the virus (Melville and Shortridge 2006).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Tringa ochropus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22693243A38814743. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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