||Numenius borealis (Forster, 1772)
||Chorlito Esquimal, Chorlo Polar, Zarapito Boreal, Zarapito Esquimal, Zarapito Polar
||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
||29-34 cm. Small cinnamon-coloured curlew. Similar spp. Little Curlew N. minutus is similar, but N. borealis is larger, longer winged (extending beyond tip of tail), shorter legged, cinnamon not buffish below with heavily barred breast and "Y" shaped marks on flanks. Small size (25% smaller than Whimbrel N. phaeopus) eliminates all other species. Voice Flight call reportedly a rippling tr-tr-tr and a soft whistle bee bee.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Clay, R., Crockford, N., Elphick, C., Gill, R.E., Gratto-Trevor, C., Hoffman, R., Parr, M., Reed, E., Swem, T. & Roberts, D.
||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Clay, R., Isherwood, I., Pilgrim, J., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Wege, D., Ashpole, J & Wheatley, H.
This species has not been recorded with certainty since 1963 (and none have been confirmed on the wintering grounds since 1939). It was formerly abundant, but declined rapidly over a century ago as a result of hunting and habitat loss and is now considered likely to be extinct (Elphick et. al. 2010, Roberts & Jarić 2016). However, some uncertainty of the species's extinction status remains (Roberts & Jarić 2016, D. Roberts in litt. 2016) and the species is therefore listed as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).
|Date last seen:
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2015 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2013 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2012 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2009 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2008 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2004 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2000 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1996 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1994 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Numenius borealis bred at (and presumably between) the Bathurst peninsula and Point Lake in Northwest Territories, Canada (Gill et al. 1998), and perhaps also Alaska, USA. Birds migrated across Hudson Bay to Labrador (and New England, USA), and through the Caribbean to Argentina (especially the Pampas), and possibly Uruguay, Paraguay (R. Clay in litt. 2003), southernmost Brazil and Chile south to Patagonia (Gill et al. 1998). The return migration was probably along the Pacific coast, through Central America, across the Gulf of Mexico to the Texas coast and northwards through the prairies. It probably numbered hundreds of thousands, but declined rapidly in the 1870s-1890s to become very rare in the 20th century (Gill et al. 1998, Graves 2010). The last irrefutable record was of a specimen collected in Barbados in 1963 (Roberts et al. 2010). Since then there have been no confirmed records (none from the wintering grounds in South America since 1939), only several unconfirmed reports during 1981-2006 (Gill et al. 1998, M. Parr in litt. 2003, C. L. Gratto-Trevor in litt. 2004, R. Hoffman in litt. 2006, N. Crockford in litt. 2008), with the latest unconfirmed sighting from Barbados in September 2012 (E. Reed in litt. 2012). The population (if one persists) must be tiny (Gill et al. 1998). A recent analysis based on historic sightings found that the species most likely went extinct in the late 1960s, with an upper limit to the confidence interval of 1977 (Elphick et. al. 2010). However, a new analysis that incorporated sighting uncertainty (Roberts & Jarić 2016) concluded that the species is possibly extinct but that there is a level of uncertainty that would suggest that the species's extinction is not yet confirmed (D. Roberts in litt. 2016).|
Argentina; Barbados; Brazil; Canada; Chile; Mexico; Paraguay; United States; Uruguay
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||1|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||350|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|