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Limosa lapponica

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AVES CHARADRIIFORMES SCOLOPACIDAE

Scientific Name: Limosa lapponica
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Bar-tailed Godwit
French Barge rousse

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Countries:
Native:
Algeria; American Samoa (American Samoa); Angola (Angola); Armenia (Armenia); Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belgium; Benin; Botswana; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; China; Comoros; Congo; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Fiji; Finland; France; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Guam; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Hong Kong; Hungary; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kiribati; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Libya; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritania; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Moldova; Mongolia; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Nauru; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nigeria; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Qatar; Russian Federation; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovakia; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tonga; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States (Georgia); Uzbekistan; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Western Sahara; Yemen; Zambia
Vagrant:
Afghanistan; Belarus; Bermuda; Brazil; Burundi; Christmas Island; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Equatorial Guinea; Faroe Islands; French Southern Territories; Gibraltar; Jordan; Lebanon; Liberia; Liechtenstein; Luxembourg; Malta; Mauritius; Mexico; Montenegro; Réunion; Romania; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Sao Tomé and Principe; Serbia (Serbia); Slovenia; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Zimbabwe
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population is estimated to number c.1,100,000-1,200,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: < c.10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour This species is a full long-distance migrant (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It breeds from late-May to August (Hayman et al. 1986) in solitary pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1996), although it may also form small colonies (Flint et al. 1984). After breeding adults disperse to coastal moulting sites, the onward migration to wintering grounds then continuing into October and November (Hayman et al. 1986). The species often flies in large flocks (Hayman et al. 1986) and forages in groups outside of the breeding season (del Hoyo et al. 1996), occasionally aggregating into huge flocks of several hundreds of thousands of individuals at favoured sites (e.g. in Mauritania) (Hayman et al. 1986). Habitat Breeding The species breeds in marshy, swampy areas in lowland moss and shrub tundra (Johnsgard 1981, Flint et al. 1984, del Hoyo et al. 1996) near wet river valleys (Johnsgard 1981), lakes and sedge bogs (Flint et al. 1984), as well as on swampy heathlands in the willow and birch zone near the Arctic treeline (Johnsgard 1981), in open larch Larix spp. woodland close to water (del Hoyo et al. 1996), and occasionally on open bogs in the extreme north of the coniferous forest zone (Johnsgard 1981). Non-breeding On passage the species may frequent inland wetlands (Hayman et al. 1986), sandy beaches with pine Pinus spp. stands, swampy lowlands near lakes (Flint et al. 1984) and short-grass meadows, but during the winter it is more common in intertidal areas along muddy coastlines, estuaries, inlets, mangrove-fringed lagoons and sheltered bays (del Hoyo et al. 1996) with tidal mudflats or sandbars (Johnsgard 1981). Diet Breeding When breeding the species feeds on insects, annelid worms, molluscsand occasionally seeds and berries (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Non-breeding In intertidal areas the species's diet consists of annelids (e.g. Nereis spp. and Arenicola spp.), bivalves and crustaceans, although it will also take cranefly larvae and earthworms on grasslands and occasionally larval amphibians (tadpoles) and small fish (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a depression positioned on a dry elevated site (del Hoyo et al. 1996) such as a tundra ridge (Johnsgard 1981) or hummock (Flint et al. 1984), often between clumps of grass (del Hoyo et al. 1996) or under a thicket (Flint et al. 1984). Management information In the UK there is evidence that the removal of Spartina anglica from tidal mudflats using a herbicide is beneficial for the species (Evans 1986).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is threatened by the degradation of foraging sites due to land reclamation, pollution, human disturbance (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Kelin and Qiang 2006), reduced river flows (Kelin and Qiang 2006) and in some areas the invasion of mudflats and coastal saltmarshes by mangroves (owing to sea-level rise and increased sedimentation and nutrient loads at the coast from uncontrolled development and soil erosion in upstream catchment areas) (Straw and Saintilan 2006). The species is also susceptible to avian influenza so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the virus (Melville and Shortridge 2006).

Citation: BirdLife International 2012. Limosa lapponica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 December 2014.
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