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Zapornia sandwichensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Gruiformes Rallidae

Scientific Name: Zapornia sandwichensis (Gmelin, 1789)
Common Name(s):
English Hawaiian Rail, Hawaiian Crake
Synonym(s):
Porzana sandwichensis (Gmelin, 1789)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Taxonomic Notes: Zapornia sandwichensis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Porzana.

Porzana millsi
(often incorrectly spelled "millei") is a synonym, used for the darker, probably immature, form of the species (Taylor 1998).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Extinct ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Brooks, T., Khwaja, N. & Mahood, S.
Justification:
This species was found in the Hawaiian Islands, USA, but has been driven Extinct by the depredations of introduced cats. The last record of the species dates from 1884.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Zapornia sandwichensis occurred on the east side of Hawai'i, USA, and may also have occurred on Molokai (Pratt et al. 1987). It is known from bones and a number of specimens (Olson and James 1991), and was illustrated by Ellis on Cook's third voyage (Stresemann 1950). The last specimen was collected in 1864 and the last report was in 1884, or possibly 1893 (Taylor 1998).

Countries occurrence:
Regionally extinct:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:See Geographic Range text.
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It inhabited clearings in upland forest.

Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):2.7
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The timing of its extinction indicates that it was perhaps not caused by mongooses, as they were not introduced until 1883. More probably, it was due to a long process of predation by rats, cats, dogs and people (Taylor 1998).


Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Zapornia sandwichensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22692693A93364994. . Downloaded on 20 September 2017.
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