Zapornia parva 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Gruiformes Rallidae

Scientific Name: Zapornia parva
Species Authority: (Scopoli, 1769)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Little Crake
French Marouette poussin
Porzana parva (Scopoli, 1769)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes: Zapornia parva (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Porzana.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J. & Malpas, L.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Albania; Algeria; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Egypt; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Mauritania; Moldova; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Yemen; Zambia
Afghanistan; Cape Verde; Denmark; Eritrea; Gambia; Ireland; Liberia; Luxembourg; Niger; Norway; Portugal; Qatar; Somalia; Uganda; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 1450000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2000
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour Most populations of this species are fully migratory and migrate to wintering grounds from late-August to November, returning north from February-May, and arriving again on breeding grounds between March and April (del Hoyo et al. 1996) with breeding occurring between May and August (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species breeds in separate territories in solitary pairs or family groups (Urban et al. 1986, Snow and Perrins 1998), although in favourable habitat nests may be placed as close as 30-35 m apart (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998). Outside of the breeding season the species is usually seen singly (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998) although it may occur in groups on migration and in the Autumn it sometimes associates with Spotted Crake Porzana porzana (Taylor and van Perlo 1998). Habitat Breeding The species breeds in the lowlands (up to 2,000 m) in temperate and steppe zones (del Hoyo et al. 1996), extending into boreal regions if conditions are favourable (Taylor and van Perlo 1998). It inhabits natural or semi-natural eutrophic freshwater wetlands with still or slow-flowing water (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998), and requires tall stands of emergent vegetation (e.g. Scirpus, Typha, Carex, Sparganium and Phragmites) (Taylor and van Perlo 1998) in or near fairly deep water in which to breed, preferably with a mixture of dead and living stems and a layer of broken stems at ground or water level (Taylor and van Perlo 1998). Suitable habitats include the margins of lakes and rivers (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998), small pools and oxbows in regularly inundated floodplains (Taylor and van Perlo 1998), marshes (Taylor and van Perlo 1998), flooded woodland (del Hoyo et al. 1996) such as alder Alnus coppices (Taylor and van Perlo 1998) and flooded rice-fields (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Non-breeding During the non-breeding season this species inhabits flooded rice-fields (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998), seasonally flooded grasslands (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996, Taylor and van Perlo 1998), swamps and small pools overgrown with reeds, bulrushes, sedges and rank grass (Urban et al. 1986), and sewage ponds (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species may occur in more atypical habitats on migration (Taylor and van Perlo 1998). Diet The diet of this species consists mostly of insects (especially waterbeetles, Hemiptera, Neuroptera, and adult and larval Diptera), as well as the seeds and shoots of aquatic plants (Carex, Sparganium, Polygonum and Nymphaea), worms, gastropods, spiders and water mites (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow cup of plant matter (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996) placed in thick vegetation on or near water (Urban et al. 1986), or occasionally raised on a tussock or platform of dead material, preferably in sites only accessible by swimming (Taylor and van Perlo 1998). Management information The species prefers to breed in tall reedbeds that are not regularly cut or burnt (i.e. with mixtures of dead or living stems) (Taylor and van Perlo 1998).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 2.7
Movement patterns: Full Migrant
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In its breeding range the species is threatened by wetland degradation and destruction such as lake drainage for irrigation and hydroelectric power production (Balian et al. 2002), and intensive reed harvesting (Taylor and van Perlo 1998).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Zapornia parva. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22692663A38385332. . Downloaded on 30 May 2016.
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