|Scientific Name:||Lewinia muelleri (Rothschild, 1893)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Identification information:||21 cm. Small, chestnut-brown rail. Chestnut back, uppertail, wings, streaked with black. Red/brown sides of head. Grey breast, flanks, undertail barred black-and-white. Sexes alike. Voice Loud crek rapidly repeated c.10 times, loud, sharp, short whistle repeated c.50 times in about 12 seconds.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Bell, B. & Roberts, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Khwaja, N., Mahood, S., McClellan, R., Taylor, J.|
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it is restricted to a very small range on just two small islands where the accidental introduction of mammals could easily cause its extinction.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Lewinia muelleri is endemic to the Auckland Islands, New Zealand. It was once thought to be extinct but was rediscovered on Adams Island (100 km2) in 1966 and Disappointment Island (4 km2) in 1993. On Adams, where suitable habitat may cover as little as 10% of the island (Elliott et al. 1991), the population is estimated at 1,500 birds (Heather and Robertson 1997). On Disappointment, the population is estimated at more than 500 (Collar et al. 1994). Its status on Ewing Island is unclear, and it may indeed never have occurred there (Elliott et al. 1991). Population numbers are apparently stable (Heather and Robertson 1997).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The total population is estimated at c.2,000 mature individuals, based on estimates published by Collar et al. (1994) and Heather and Robertson (1997).|
Trend Justification: There are no new data on population trends; however, the species is suspected to remain stable.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Its preferred habitat consists of coastal and cliff herbfields, Carex grassland, tussock-herbfields and forest. The one clutch seen in the wild consisted of two eggs (Elliott et al. 1991). One juvenile bird caught in the wild lived for nine years in captivity, and ate insects and other invertebrates (Heather and Robertson 1997, Taylor and van Perlo 1998).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||3.7|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Although both rail-inhabited islands are predator-free, Auckland Island (a few hundred metres from Adams) supports feral cats, mice and pigs, and therefore the introduction of these animals is a possible threat.|
Conservation Actions Underway
The islands are nature reserves and part of a World Heritage Site declared in 1998.Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to obtain an up-to-date estimate of the population size. Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Eradicate pigs from Auckland Island in the long term (B. D. Bell verbally 1999, A. D. Roberts in litt. 1999). Transfer birds to other suitable pest-free islands in the Auckland Island group (A. D. Roberts in litt. 1999).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Lewinia muelleri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22692529A93357313.Downloaded on 26 April 2018.|
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