||Caroline Ground-dove, Caroline Islands Ground-Dove, Caroline Ground-dove, White-fronted Ground Dove
Gallicolumba kubaryi (Finsch, 1880)
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||Alopecoenas kubaryi (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Gallicolumba.
||28 cm. Medium-sized, short-tailed dove. Adults mostly black posteriorly, with purplish-crimson back and shoulders. White head and breast with black crown connected at rear with black postocular stripe. Juveniles dark rusty-brown. Voice Low moan, rarely uttered. Hints Shy and retiring, usually in forest but often found in gardens at mid-elevation on Chuuk. Partial to mangroves on Pohnpei.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Amidon, F., Collins, C., Dutson, G., Lepson, J., Raynor, B., Wiles, G., O'Brien, M. & Buden, D.W.
||Benstead, P., Derhé, M., Mahood, S., O'Brien, A., Shutes, S., Stattersfield, A., Khwaja, N., North, A.
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a very small population which appears to be declining on at least one island, probably owing to hunting, predation and expanding cultivation.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1996 – Endangered (EN)
- 1994 – Endangered (EN)
- 1988 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
|Range Description:||Alopecoenas kubaryi is endemic to the Federated States of Micronesia, occurring on the islands of Pohnpei, where the population was estimated at 841 birds in 1983-1984, and Chuuk (Truk), where it was estimated to number 294 in 1983-1984 (Engbring et al. 1990). In 1994, a repeat survey on Pohnpei recorded a decrease in encounter rate in the lowlands (F. Amidon in litt. 2007, Buden 2000). A Chuuk population estimate in 2001 indicated a significantly smaller population (G. Dutson in litt. 2001). Populations have probably always been low, at least in historical times (Baker 1951, Engbring et al. 1990). Several individuals have also been detected on Ant Atoll (D. Kesler in litt. 2012).|
Micronesia, Federated States of
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||15100|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||11-100||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||180|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||On Pohnpei, it inhabits brushy ravines, appearing to prefer those where hibiscus Hibiscus tiliaceus forms dense thickets. This constitutes a highly disturbed habitat, often occurring near settlements (Baptista et al. 1997). It is also found in lowland forests, mangroves and, less commonly, in montane forest. On Chuuk, it is found in agricultural and native forest at all elevations (Engbring et al. 1990). Surprisingly dense populations have been found on some islets, indicating that coastal strand/forest vegetation is also suitable (J. Lepson in litt. 1999), and was observed regularly in similar habitats on Fenepi and Ipis Islands, on Kuop Atoll, several Kilometers south of Chuuk proper in July 2013 (Buden in litt. 2016). It has been sighted feeding in fairly degraded habitat on the island of Weno (C. Collins in litt. 2008). It feeds primarily on the ground on seeds, worms and small snails. It nests in deep forest, up to 180 m. On Chuuk, nests with eggs have been found in February, April, June and September. Clutch-size is one (Baptista et al. 1997).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||6.6|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|